Browsing Tag: Media

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    How To Boost Media Performance On A Budget — Smashing Magazine


    About The Author

    Akshay Ranganath is a Solution Architect at Cloudinary responsible for bringing customers on-board, helping them create work-flow for media management and media …
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    How do we get media performance right while staying within performance budgets? Let’s take a look at the recent stats and data around performance budgets, video playback performance issues and some techniques and tools to address these issues.

    American scholar Mason Cooley deftly described a hard fact of life: “A budget takes the fun out of money.” Unquestionably, media enlivens websites, adding appeal, excitement, and intrigue, let alone enticements to stay on a page and frequently revisit it. However, just as out-of-control spending bodes ill in the long run, so does unbudgeted digital media decimate site performance.

    A case in point: a page-load slowdown of a mere second could cost Amazon $1.6 billion in annual sales. Of the many factors that affect page-load speed, media is a significant one. Hence the dire need for prioritizing optimization of media. By spending your money right on that task and budgeting your media, you’ll reap significant savings and benefits in the long run.

    A web perf summit, with a slide on evidence showing positive impact of performance, and an attendee arguing it it's all a big hoax and we create a better user experience for nothing.
    Have you been in the same sitution as well? Illustration by Joel Pett, adapted by Jake Archibald.

    Performance Budgets

    “A performance budget is ‘… just what it sounds like: you set a ‘budget’ on your page and do not allow the page to exceed that. This may be a specific load time, but it is usually an easier conversation to have when you break the budget down into the number of requests or size of the page.”

    Tim Kadlec

    A performance budget as a mechanism for planning a web experience and preventing performance decay might consist of the following yardsticks:

    • Overall page weight,
    • Total number of HTTP requests,
    • Page-load time on a particular mobile network,
    • First Input Delay (FID)
    • First Contentful Paint (FCP),
    • Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS),
    • Largest Contentful Paint (LCP).

    Vitaly Friedman has an excellent checklist that describes the components that affect web performance along with useful tips on optimization techniques. Becoming familiar with those components will enable you to set performance goals.

    With clearly documented performance goals, various teams can have meaningful conversations about the optimal delivery of content. For example, a budget can help them decide if a page should contain five images — or three images and one video — and still remain within the planned limits.

    budget speedcurve
    Performance budget, as used on performance monitoring tools, such as SpeedCurve. (Large preview)

    However, having a performance budget as a standalone metric might not be of much help. That’s why we must correlate performance to organizational goals.

    Business Performance

    If you splurge a lot of bytes on nonoptimal videos and images, the rich-media experience will not be so rich anymore. An organization exists to achieve outcomes, such as enticing people to buy, educating them, motivating them, or seeking help and volunteers. Anyone with a web presence would appreciate the relationship between the effect of various performance measures on business metrics.

    WPOStats highlights literally hundreds of case studies showing how a drop in perfrmance — from a few hundreds of milliseconds to seconds — might result in a massive drop in annual sales. Drawing that kind of relationship greatly helps track the effect of performance on business and, ultimately, build a performance culture for organizations.

    Similarly, slow sites can have a dramatic impact on conversion. A tough challenge online businesses face is to find the right balance between engaging the audience while staying within the performance budget.

    It’s not surprising then that a critical component for audience engagement is optimized visual media, e.g. a captivating video that weaves a story about your product or service along with relevant, interesting, and appealing visuals.

    According to MIT neuroscientists, our brain can absorb and understand visual media in less than 13 milliseconds, whereas text can take the average reader over 3.3 mins to comprehend, often after re-reading it and cross-referencing other places. No wonder then that microvideo content (usually just 10–20 seconds long) often delivers big engagements and conversion gains.

    Appeal Of Videos

    While shopping online, we expect to see detailed product images. For years, I’ve come to prefer browsing products that are complemented by videos that show, for example, how to use the product or maybe how to assemble it, or that demonstrate real-life use cases.

    Apart from my personal experience, a lot of research attests to the importance of video content:

    • 96% of consumers find videos helpful when making online purchasing decisions.
    • 79% of online shoppers prefer to watch a video for information on a product rather than reading the text on a webpage.
    • The right product video can raise conversions by over 80%.

    Speaking about the delivery of videos on the web,

    “The average video weight is increasing dramatically every year, more so on mobile than on desktop. In some cases, that may be warranted since mobile devices often have high-resolution screens, but it may also be due to a lack of ability to offer different video sizes using HTML alone. Many large videos on the web are hand-placed in marketing pages and don’t have sophisticated media servers to deliver appropriate sizes, so I hope in the future we’ll see similar simple HTML features for video delivery that we see in responsive images.”

    Scott Jehl

    The same sentiment was conveyed by Conviva’s Q4 2020 State of Streaming (registration required), which noted that mobile phones saw 20% more buffering issues, a 19% higher video-start failure and 5% longer start-time than other devices.

    Apart from rendering troubles, video delivery can also raise bandwidth costs, especially if you cannot deliver the browser’s optimal formats. Also, if you are not using a content delivery network (CDN) or multiple CDNs to map users to the closest edge regions for reduced latencies — a practice called suboptimal routing — you might slow down the start of the video.

    Similarly, unoptimized images were the leading cause of page bloat. According to the Web Almanac, the differential in image bytes sent to mobile or desktop devices is very small, which amounts to a further waste of bandwidth for devices that don’t really need all the extra bytes.

    Doubtless, going overboard with an engaging yet unoptimized content hurts business goals, and that’s where the fine art of balancing comes into play.

    The Art Of Balancing Performance With Media Content

    Even though rich media can promote user engagement, we need to balance the cost of delivering them with your website performance and business goals. One alternative is to host and deliver video through a third party like YouTube or Vimeo.

    Despite bandwidth savings, however, that approach comes at a cost. As the content owner, you can’t build a fully customized branded experience, or offer personalization. And of course, you need to host and deliver your images.

    You don’t have to offload your content. There are also other options available. Consider revamping your system for optimal media delivery by doing the following:

    Understand your current usage

    Study the weight of your webpages and the size of their media assets. Web-research expert Tammy Everts recommends ensuring that pages are less than 1 MB in size for mobile and less than 2 MB for everything else.
    In addition, identify the resources that are displayed on critical pages.

    For example, can you replace a paragraph of text and the associated images with a short video? How would that decision affect your business goals? At this stage, you might need to review your Real User Monitoring (RUM) and Analytics and identify the critical pages that lead to higher conversion and engagement rates.

    Also, be sure to synthetically track Google’s Core Web Vitals (CWVs) as part of your toolkit with tools like LightHouse. You can also measure CWVs through real-user monitoring (RUM) like CrUX. Since the CWVs will also be a signal for Google to crawlers, it makes sense to monitor and optimize for those metrics: Largest Contentful Paint (LCP), First Input Delay (FID), and Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS).

    Serve the right format

    Serve images or videos in the most appropriate format in terms of size and resolution for the viewing device or browser. You might need an image CDN for that purpose. Alternatively, create variants like WebM, AVIF, JPEG-XL, HEIC, etc. and selectively serve the right content type based on the requesting User-Agent and Accept headers.

    For one-off conversions, you can try tools like or
    A related practice is to convert animated GIFs to videos. For more insight, see this article. Want to try setting up a workflow to handle video publishing? See the great tips in the article Optimizing Video For Size And Quality.

    Serve the right size

    Over 41% of images on mobile devices are improperly sized. So, rather than serving a fixed width, crop your images and videos to fit the container size with tools like Lazysizes. Better yet, AI tools that can detect areas of interest while cropping images could save you a load of time and effort. You could also leverage native lazy-loading for images that are below the fold.

    Add subtitles to your videos

    Almost 85% of videos are played without sound. Adding subtitles to them doesn’t only provide an accessible experience, but it would capture audience attention and boost engagement. However, transcribing videos could be a tedious job; you can work with an AI-based transcription service and improve it instead to automate the workflow.

    Deliver through multiple CDNs

    CDNs can alleviate last-mile latency, shorten a video’s start time, and potentially reduce buffering issues. According to a study by Citrix, a multi-CDN strategy can reduce latency even further and offer continued availability in case of localized outages in the CDN’s edge nodes.

    Instead of leveraging multiple discreet tools, you could explore a product like Cloudinary’s Media Optimizer, which effectively and efficiently optimizes media, delivering the right format and quality through multi-CDN edge nodes. In other words, Media Optimizer optimizes both quality and size, serving high visual fidelity in small files.

    Progressively render video

    Auto-playing preview videos on YouTube has shown to increase video watch time by over 90%. Video auto-play has few benefits and plenty of drawbacks, so it’s important to be careful when to use and when not to use it. It’s important to have the option to pause the video as a minimum.

    A good way to balance the page-size budget would be to first serve AI-created video previews and poster images only, loading the full video only if the user clicks the video. That way, you can eliminate unnecessary downloads and accelerate page loads.

    Alternatively, load a preview video at the beginning and let the player autoplay the full version. Once the preview completes, the player checks the connection type of the device with the Network Connection API and, if the user has good connectivity, swaps the source from preview to the actual video.

    You can check a sample page for a demo.
    Here’s a tip: since CDNs can detect network connection types more reliably, your production-quality code could leverage the CDN to detect network speed, based on which your client code could progressively load the long-form video.

    Wrapping Up

    Down the road, thanks to its remarkable ability to tell stories in a way that words can’t, visual media will continue to be a dominant element for websites and mobile apps. However, determining the right content to deliver depends on both your business strategy and site performance.

    “A performance budget doesn’t guide your decisions about what content should be displayed. Rather, it’s about how you choose to display that content. Removing important content altogether to decrease the weight of a page is not a performance strategy.”

    Tim Kadlec

    That’s sound advice to keep in mind.

    Smashing Editorial
    (vf, yk, il)

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    Wrangling Static Assets And Media Files (Part 4) — Smashing Magazine


    About The Author

    Philip Kiely writes code and words. He is the author of Writing for Software Developers (2020). Philip holds a B.A. with honors in Computer Science from …
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    Front-end developers and designers create amazing static assets for web applications. Today, we’re focusing on what happens after the style hotfix or beautiful graphic you just finished is pushed to master. We’ll also investigate handling files that users upload, called media files. Together, we’ll develop an intuition for the strategies available to Django developers for serving these files to users worldwide in a secure, performant, and cost-effective manner.

    Django websites involve a lot of files. It’s not just source code for the configuration, models, views, and templates, but also static assets: CSS and JavaScript, images, icons. As if that wasn’t enough already, sometimes users come along and want to upload their own files to your website. It’s enough to make any developer incredulous. Files everywhere!

    Here’s where I wish I could say (without caveats): “Don’t worry, Django has your back!” But unfortunately, when dealing with static assets and media files, there are a lot of caveats to deal with.

    Today, we’ll address storing and serving files for both single-server and scalable deployments while considering factors like compression, caching, and availability. We’ll also discuss the costs and benefits of CDNs and dedicated file storage solutions.

    Note: This is not a tutorial on how to deploy a Django site to any specific platform. Instead, like the other articles in the Django Highlights series (see below), it’s intended as a guide for front-end developers and designers to understand other parts of the process of creating a web application. Today, we’re focusing on what happens after the style hotfix or beautiful graphic you just finished is pushed to master. Together, we’ll develop an intuition for the strategies available to Django developers for serving these files to users worldwide in a secure, performant, and cost-effective manner.

    Previous Parts In The Series:

    • Part 1: User Models And Authentication
    • Part 2: Templating Saves Lines
    • Part 3: Models, Admin, And Harnessing The Relational Database


    Most of these terms are pretty straightforward, but it’s worth taking a moment to establish a shared vocabulary for this discussion.

    The three types of files in a live Django application are:

    1. Source Code
      The Python and HTML files that are created with the Django framework. These files are the core of the application. Source code files are generally pretty small, measured in kilobytes.
    2. Static Files
      Also called “static assets,” these files include CSS and JavaScript, both written by the application developer and third-party libraries, as well as PDFs, software installers, images, music, videos, and icons. These files are only used client-side. Static files range from a few kilobytes of CSS to gigabytes of video.
    3. Media Files
      Any file uploaded by a user, from profile pictures to personal documents, is called a media file. These files need to be securely and reliably stored and retrieved for the user. Media files can be of any size, the user might upload a couple of kilobytes of plaintext to a few gigabytes of video. If you’re on the latter end of this scale, you probably need more specialized advice than this article is prepared to give.

    The two types of Django deployments are:

    1. Single-Server
      A single-server Django deployment is exactly what it sounds like: everything lives on a single server. This strategy is very simple and closely resembles the development environment, but cannot handle large or inconsistent amounts of traffic effectively. The single-server approach is only applicable for learning or demonstration projects, not real-word applications that require reliable uptime.
    2. Scalable
      There are lots of different ways to deploy a Django project that allows it to scale to meet user demand. These strategies often involve spinning up and down numerous servers and using tools like load balancers and managed databases. Fortunately, we can effectively lump everything more complex than a single-server deployment into this category for the purposes of this article.

    Option 1: Default Django

    Small projects benefit from simple architecture. Django’s default handling of static assets and media files is just that: simple. For each, you have a root folder that stores the files and lives right next to the source code on the server. Simple. These root folders are generated and managed mostly through the yourproject/ configuration.

    Static Assets

    The most important thing to understand when working with static files in Django is the python collectstatic command. This command rifles through the static folder of each app in the Django project and copies all static assets to the root folder. Running this command is an important part of deploying a Django project. Consider the following directory structure:

    - project
      - project
        - ...
      - app1
        - static/
          - app1
            - style.css
            - script.js
            - img.jpg
        - templates/
        - ...
      - app2
        - static/
          - app2
            - style.css
            - image.png
        - templates/
        - ...

    Also assume the following settings in project/

    STATIC_URL = "/static/"
    STATIC_ROOT = "/path/on/server/to/djangoproject/static"

    Running the python collectstatic command will create the following folder on the server:

    - /path/on/server/to/djangoproject/static
      - app1
        - style.css
        - script.js
        - img.jpg
      - app2
        - style.css
        - image.png

    Notice that within each static folder, there’s another folder with the app’s name. This is to prevent namespacing conflicts after the static files are collected; as you can see in the above file structure this keeps app1/style.css and app2/style.css distinct. From here, the application will look for static files in this structure at the STATIC_ROOT during production. As such, reference static files as follows in a template in app1/templates/:

    {% load static %}
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="{% static "app1/style.css" %}">

    Django automatically figures out where to get the static file from in development to model this behavior, you do not need to run collectstatic during development.

    For more details, see the Django documentation.

    Media Files

    Imagine a professional networking site with a database of users. Each of those users would have an associated profile, which might contain, among other things, an avatar image and a resume document. Here’s a short example model of that information:

    from django.db import models
    from django.contrib.auth.models import User
    def avatar_path(instance, filename):
        return "avatar_{}_{}".format(, filename)
    class Profile(models.Model):
        user = models.OneToOneField(User, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
        resume = models.FileField(upload_to="path/string")
        avatar = models.ImageField(upload_to=avatar_path)

    For this to work, you need the following options in project/, like with static assets:

    MEDIA_URL = "/media/"
    MEDIA_ROOT = "/path/on/server/to/media"

    An ImageField inherits from FileField, so it shares the same parameters and capabilities. Both fields have an optional upload_to argument, which takes a string that is a path and appends it to the MEDIA_ROOT to store the file, which is then accessible by the same path on top of MEDIA_URL. The upload_to argument can also take a function that returns a string, as demonstrated with the avatar_path function.

    Make sure to omit the media files directory and its contents from version control. Its contents may conflict when two developers test the same application on different machines, and it is, unlike static assets, not a part of the deployable Django application.

    Option 2: Django With Services

    My guiding philosophy is to use tools for what they’re best at. Django is an amazing framework, and it provides great tooling out of the box for user authentication, server-side rendering, working with models and forms, administrative functions, and dozens of other essential aspects of building web applications. However, its tooling for handling static assets and media files is not, in my opinion, well-suited for production on scalable sites. The Django core developers recognize that many people choose alternate approaches to handling these files in production; the framework is very good at getting out of your way when you do. Most Django sites intended for general use will want to incorporate static assets and handle media files using these non-Django-specific approaches.

    Static Assets On A CDN

    While small-to-medium projects can get away without one, a CDN (content delivery network) is easy to use and improves the performance of applications of any size. A CDN is a network of servers, generally worldwide, that distributes and serves web content, mostly static assets. Popular CDNs include Cloudflare CDN, Amazon CloudFront, and Fastly. To use a CDN, you upload your static files, then in your application reference them as follows:

    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="">

    This process is easy to integrate with your Django deployment scripts. After running the python collectstatic command, copy the generated directory to your CDN (a process that varies substantially based on the service you’re using), then remove the static assets from the Django deployment package.

    In development, you’ll want to access different copies of your static assets than in production. This way, you can make changes locally without affecting the production site. You can either use local assets or run a second instance of the CDN to deliver the files. Configure yourproject/ with some custom variable, like CDN_URL, and use that value in your templates to ensure you’re using the correct version of assets in development and production.

    One final note is that many libraries for CSS and JavaScript have free CDNs that most websites can use. If you’re loading, say, Bootstrap 4 or underscore.js, you can skip the hassle of using your own copy in development and the expense of serving your own copies in production by using these public CDNs.

    Media Files with a Dedicated Filestore

    No production Django site should store user files in a simple /media/ folder somewhere on the server that runs the site. Here are three of the many reasons why not to:

    1. If you need to scale up the site by adding multiple servers, you need some way of copying and syncing the uploaded files across those servers.
    2. If a server crashes, the source code is backed up in your version control system, but media files aren’t backed up by default, unless you configured your server to do so, but for that effort you’d be better off using a dedicated filestore.
    3. In case of malicious activity, it’s somewhat better to keep user-uploaded files on a separate server from the one running the application, although this in no way removes the requirement to validate user-uploaded files.

    Integrating a third party to store your user-uploaded files is really easy. You don’t need to change anything in your code, except maybe removing or modifying the upload_to value of FileFields in your models, and configuring a few settings. For example, if you were planning to store your files in AWS S3, you’d want to do the following, which is very similar to the process of storing files with Google Cloud, Azure, Backblaze, or similar competing services.

    First, you’ll need to install the libraries boto3 and django-storages. Then, you need to set up a bucket and IAM role on AWS, which is outside the scope of this article, but you can see instructions for here. Once all of that is configured, you need to add three variables to your project/

    DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE = "storages.backends.s3boto3.S3Boto3Storage"
    AWS_S3_REGION_NAME = "us-east-2"

    Additionally, you will need to set up credential access to your AWS bucket. Some tutorials will demonstrate adding an ID and secret key to your settings file or as environment variables, but these are insecure practices. Instead, use django-storages with the AWS CLI to configure the keys, as described here. You may also be interested in the django-storages documentation.

    You don’t want development or testing media files to get mixed up with uploads from actual users. Avoiding this is pretty simple: set up multiple buckets, one for development (or one for each developer), one for testing, and one for production. Then, all you need to change is the AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME setting per environment and you’re good to go.

    Performance And Availability

    There are numerous factors that affect the performance and reliability of your website. Here are some important ones when considering static and media files that matter regardless of which approach you take to managing them.


    Serving files to a user costs money for two reasons: storage and bandwidth. You have to pay the hosting provider to store the files for you, but you also have to pay them to serve the files. Bandwidth is substantially more expensive than storage (for example, AWS S3 charges 2.3 cents per gigabyte for storage versus 9 cents per gigabyte of data transfer out to the Internet at the time of writing). The economics of a file store like S3 or a CDN are different than the economics of a generalized host like a Digital Ocean droplet. Take advantage of specialization and economies of scale by moving expensive files to services designed for them. Furthermore, many file stores and CDNs offer free plans so sites that might be small enough to get away without using them can instead do so and reap the benefits without any additional infrastructure costs.

    Compression and Transcoding

    Most of the problems caused by static assets like photos and videos are because they are big files. Naturally, developers address this by trying to make these files smaller. There are a number of ways to do this using a mix of compression and transcoding in two general categories: lossless and lossy. Lossless compression retains the original quality of the assets but provides relatively modest decreases in file size. Lossy compression, or transcoding into a lossy format, allows for much smaller file sizes at the expense of losing some of the quality of the original artifact. An example of this is transcoding video to a lower bitrate. For details, check out this article about optimizing video delivery. When serving large files over the web, bandwidth speeds often demand that you serve highly compressed artifacts, requiring lossy compression.

    Unless you’re YouTube, compression and transcoding doesn’t happen on the fly. Static assets should be appropriately formatted prior to deployment, and you can enforce basic file type and file size restrictions on user uploads to ensure sufficient compression and appropriate formatting in your users’ media files.


    While files of JavaScript and CSS aren’t usually as large as images, they can often be compressed to squeeze into fewer bytes. This process is called minification. Minification does not change the encoding of the files, they’re still text, and a minified file still needs to be valid code for its original language. Minified files retain their original extensions.

    The main thing removed in a minified file is unnecessary whitespace, and from the computer’s perspective almost all whitespace in CSS and JavaScript is unnecessary. Minification schemes also shorten variable names and remove comments.

    Minification by default obfuscates code; as a developer, you should work exclusively with non-minified files. Some automatic step during the deployment process should minify the files before they are stored and served. If you’re using a library provided by a third-party CDN, make sure you’re using the minified version of that library if available. HTML files can be minified, but as Django uses server-side rendering, the processing cost of doing so on the fly would most likely outweigh the small decrease in page size.

    Global Availability

    Just like it takes less time to send a letter to your neighbor than it does to send it across the country, so to does it take less time to transmit data nearby than across the world. One of the ways that a CDN improves page performance is by copying assets onto servers across the world. Then, when a client makes a request, they receive the static assets from the nearest server (often called an edge node), decreasing load times. One of the advantages to using a CDN with a Django site is decoupling the global distribution of your static assets from the global distribution of your code.

    Client-Side Caching

    What’s better than having a static file on a server near your user? Having the static file already stored on your user’s device! Caching is the process of storing the results of a computation or request so that they can be accessed repeatedly more quickly. Just like a CSS stylesheet can be cached around the world in a CDN, it can be cached in the client’s browser the first time they load a page from your site. Then, the stylesheet is available on the device itself in subsequent requests, so the client is making fewer requests, improving page load time, and decreasing bandwidth use.

    Browsers perform their own caching operations, but if your site enjoys substantial traffic, you can optimize your client-side caching behavior using Django’s cache framework.

    In Conclusion

    Again, my guiding philosophy is to use tools for what they’re best at. Single-server projects and small scalable deployments with only lightweight static assets can use Django’s built-in static asset management, but most applications should separate out assets to be served over a CDN.

    If your project is intended for any kind of real-word use, do not store media files with Django’s default method, instead use a service. With enough traffic, where “enough traffic” is a relatively small number on the scale of the Internet, the additional complications to architecture, the development process, and deployment are more than worth it for the performance, reliability, and cost savings of using a separate CDN and file storage solution for static and media files, respectively.

    Recommended Reading

    • Part 1: User Models And Authentication
    • Part 2: Templating Saves Lines
    • Part 3: Models, Admin, And Harnessing The Relational Database
    Smashing Editorial
    (dm, ra, yk, il)

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