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    How To Get Web Design Clients Fast (Part 2) — Smashing Magazine

    04/15/2021

    About The Author

    Stephen Roe writes about web design at Sitejet. When he isn’t plotting world domination with his clients, he’s studying the intersection of culture, …
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    Stephen

    Selling is key to growing your web design business, but it doesn’t have to be complicated! With clear goals, customer research, and proven closing techniques, anyone can find new clients.

    In part 1, we explained how to use a monthly recurring revenue (MRR) model to grow your web design business. In this second part, we’ll explain how to use proven sales techniques to keep scaling your business profitably.

    If you’re an agency owner, you know that you need customers to grow. No matter how big your dreams are, customers are the lifeblood of your business. But you’re probably wondering — how do you attract quality, high-paying clients?

    We started our design agency from zero. Two and a half years later, that same business generated $50,000 USD in monthly revenue, and today, it’s many times that size and still growing — all thanks to the sales techniques you’re about to read.

    The secret to any successful company is sales, and that applies to design businesses too. Some people are worried about their lack of experience, especially since real-world sales techniques aren’t taught in school. But don’t worry. Sales savvy is like anything else — a skill that you can learn. If you’re ready to learn how to get web design clients fast, keep reading.

    How To Set (and Reach) Ambitious Sales Goals

    To set a sales objective, choose a target monthly recurring revenue number and deadline. You can base this on your ideal income or what you currently make with one-off clients. For example, your goal could be earning $7,000 USD per month within 24 months after you kick-off. Then divide that figure by your average price. So if you charge $100 per month, you’ll need 70 customers.

    When you start, you’ll probably convert about 2–3% of your leads, so you’ll need to contact 33 people for each new customer. So a goal of 70 customers for $7,000 USD per month means reaching 2,300–4,600 leads. (This number may be higher or lower depending on your sales skills and lead quality.)

    Thousands of leads probably sounds like a lot! But it’s manageable if you break it down. Each month, you’ll need to contact about 100–200 leads. If you work Monday–Friday, that’s just 5–10 leads a day. Stick with that goal and have an accountability system to track how well you’re doing.

    Focus on hitting those lead goals every day or week, even if you don’t see immediate results. Sometimes you’ll close a prospect the same day, but it will more likely take a few days or even weeks of follow-up, explanations, and demos before you finally win them over.

    If you don’t work consistently on your goals, it will be frustrating down the line. If you pitch 40 prospects the first week, then 5 the next week, then 15, then 40 again, you’ll have a patchy funnel and inconsistent growth. Put in consistent work, and you’ll see continual progress that will snowball over time.

    Once you have your goal set, where should you look for those MRR clients? Here are the best strategies we’ve learned.

    Nine Places To Find Web Design Clients

    When you’re just starting, you should try different methods to get clients. As you gain more experience, you’ll learn where to focus your efforts, and you’ll get better at converting those clients. Cold pitching a potential client might work best for you, while digital marketing does well for someone else.

    1. Use Personal Connections

    Chances are, you already know someone who could become a new web design client—or you know someone who knows someone. Share what you’re doing with friends, family, neighbors, and especially any local business owners you know.

    You never know which referral might get you another client.

    2. Sell With Your Website

    Do you want a salesperson that is always working, never gets tired, and can sell to thousands of clients at once? Then you’ll want to make sure your current website is at its very best. If you’re using a basic theme, switch to a modern custom design. Web design clients will judge your design skills by the quality of your own site, so make sure it’s always looking good.

    For our agency, we’re continually improving our website to keep it up-to-date and modern. We also include a portfolio of sites we’ve designed so that prospects can see the kind of quality we offer.

    3. Ask For Referrals

    You’ve worked insanely hard to get the customers you have. Why not leverage your trust with them for even more profit and sales? Ask a happy client to tell their hairdresser, favorite restaurant, plumber, dentist, lawyer, and other local businesses. Then check up on those leads and convince them to hire you as a web designer.

    Remember, referring a friend is the best way past clients can thank you. To get referrals, you’ll need to ask! As a bonus, thank your customers or friends for a referral. A surprise gift for a referral goes a long way.

    Some referral gifts we recommend are:

    • 10% off your next site update,
    • Free website health check,
    • One month free of charge,
    • $100 Amazon voucher.

    4. Partner With Other Businesses

    Another strategy to grow your client list is to partner with related businesses, like SEO firms or ad agencies. When you can find a great company in a related but non-competitive niche, reach out and form a partnership. You recommend clients to them, and they’ll recommend clients to you.

    Everyone wins. Your customers get helpful services, and both of you will benefit from the referrals you share.

    5. Use Content Marketing

    You can also use inbound marketing to attract customers to you with content instead of going to them. Blogging on your own site gives you credibility, especially if you focus on writing about solutions for the biggest problems your clients have. New customers already see you as the expert because they’ve read a blog post. Write articles that cover the basic principles of building an online presence and growing a customer base.

    The second strategy is guest posting. For example, you can write about best practices for a restaurant website and post them on a blog where restaurant owners get the latest news for their business. Educational content establishes you as an authority and opens you up to a new audience eager to learn about their industry. Writing for other sites has helped us a lot — you’re reading one of those articles now!

    Note: We go into more detail on using content marketing in our free guide to finding web design clients.

    6. Post On Social Media

    We’ve seen success promoting our content on social media. The two that have worked the best for us have been Facebook and LinkedIn, but feel free to experiment with others. Various industries will have a preferred social media platform, so learn about this for your niche and target accordingly.

    Organic social media works best as a part of your strategy alongside other methods. It might not bring in leads itself, but a strong social media presence helps convert potential clients who need a good reason to choose you. If you’re doing well on social networks, it can help with that decision-making process and close the deal.

    The most important content you can share solves your customer’s problems. And it isn’t just about selling — think of how to teach your customers to take advantage of new digital technologies. For example, you can teach restaurants how to set up a QR code for a digital menu. In addition to helpful content, we recommend sharing sites you’ve designed and using hashtags your target customer will recognize. But make sure to keep your feed professional — don’t post pictures of what you ate for breakfast!

    7. Test Paid Ads

    The reality is that you won’t keep growing with free methods after a certain point. That’s why we recommend using paid ads as you grow. We’ve used various platforms, from Google Ads to job boards. We’ve also seen a lot of success in offering an email newsletter with multiple opt-ins.

    You can also try Facebook Ads and a more complex sales funnel system, complete with a landing page to collect web design leads. Paid ads have brought in lots of new customers for us.

    8. Build A Network

    An effective way of getting new clients is by building your professional network. First, connect with other founders in person. If you’re not already involved in your local community of business leaders, start as soon as possible. You’ll get valuable advice and business contacts that can lead to more sales in the future.

    One of the best places to do this is networking events, like local community business leader meetups. You’ll meet lots of potential clients and get leads for many more. Don’t pitch these contacts, just build relationships. Care about their business and learn what they’re looking for. When they need a website, they’ll know who to turn to.

    As the world has gone remote, look for virtual events as well. Check out local business leader Facebook groups, digital summits, and other opportunities to connect remotely.

    9. Do Cold Outreach

    Last but not least is cold outreach. You’ll need to research a target audience, find a potential client, and reach out with a phone call introducing yourself. Cold outreach has been the main way we’ve built our agency. It’s a lot of hard work, but the results speak for themselves!

    The best way to make a sale is by positioning a business website as the solution to a challenge your prospect faces, like restaurants wanting new customers or losing foot traffic to national chain competitors.

    We’ll go into cold outreach more in the next section, but these three principles are a great starting point:

    • Build rapport with your prospect.
      Know their name and understand their business, and always look for a personal connection. Honestly care about their success.
    • Be an expert.
      Asking insightful questions is a great way to be knowledgeable without showing off. Help your prospect consider new opportunities in their business they wouldn’t have thought of if it wasn’t for you.
    • Get a commitment.
      Before you hang up the phone, try your best to get the prospect to close or else agree to talk later.

    With these points in mind, you can use the following script to make the sale.

    Illustration
    (Image source: Sitejet.io)

    Our Most Effective Sales Strategy

    We’ll walk through the template we’ve used to convert hundreds of cold leads into happy customers. This successful sales technique boils down to five key steps.

    Step 1: Build Rapport And Understanding

    Before you jump into a sales pitch, show you care about the business owner and want them to succeed. Start by introducing yourself with your name. Make sure you’re talking to the owner or decision-maker before moving on.

    Next, draw a connection to their business—the more personal, the better. Maybe you ate at the client’s restaurant recently, saw one of their delivery vans, or found them on the internet (this neutral intro always works if you don’t have anything specific to point out).

    Here’s a version of the script we might use:

    Hi, it’s Dave Smith speaking!

    Am I speaking to Lisa Samuelson? Great!

    Some friends had dinner at Lisa’s Diner a few weeks ago and gave you very high praise.

    Step 2: Create Demand By Showing How You Can Help

    Your goal here is to offer a way to bring in new paying customers without extra work. Who wouldn’t take you up on that deal? Most of the time, business owners don’t want a website—they want the results a website will bring, like better visibility, high search rankings, more customers, more job applicants, and so on.

    You can develop your versions of the following and include a relevant case study from a previous client. For example, a painter specializing in complete house exteriors might tire of requests for small interior jobs. A specialized website can filter their prospects and bring them better business.

    Here’s a basic script our team has developed:

    Well, Lisa, I run a firm here in CITY that helps business owners become more successful in the digital world with high-quality, full-service websites.

    We realized most business owners don’t have the time or tech skills to build and maintain their own website. As a result, they have an outdated site or no site and lose potential customers every day.

    We believe business owners should focus on their business. We handle every part of your site, from updates to domain, hosting, email, and even search engine optimization if you want.

    Step 3: Show Why You’re The Best Option

    Up next, you’ll need to show why the prospect must choose you. Cover the advantages of the recurring revenue model here and explain your fees. Explain that you deliver top-quality modern websites combined with outstanding service, all at affordable prices.

    Here are the best talking points you can use:

    We run a technology that allows us to deliver top-quality modern websites combined with outstanding service, all at affordable prices.

    Unlike traditional agencies or web designers, you don’t pay us thousands upfront, only to get a website to maintain on your own that will be technically outdated in two years.

    For a one-time setup fee of $499 USD and a monthly charge of just $99 USD, we’ll create a professional site, update the content, do technical maintenance, keep your domain name current, host the site, and keep your email accounts running.

    We have a 20% discount on the monthly fee when billed annually.

    Step 4: Tailor Your Pitch To Their Business

    The next step is to understand their business and show you care about it. The more you find out about the client’s business and problems, the better you’ll be able to tailor your sales pitch!

    Here are the best types of questions to use and how to show how a website will help:

    • What is the greatest challenge in your industry/for your business?
      However they respond, explain how a website will help! You can help them find employees, acquire customers, and stand apart from the competition.
    • Who is currently responsible for your website/web presence?
      Most of the time, it’s not in the hands of a professional. Ask questions to show why this is a problem, like asking what their backup plan is in case of a server crash or how they’re keeping the site updated for more recent devices, standards, and best practices. Explain how your team has experience handling website problems and will always treat them like professionals.
    • Do you know how many visits your current website has?
      If they do, show what you can do to increase this. If not, explain how your site will provide them with valuable data to find more customers and grow their business.
    • Do you know what percentage of customers in your industry are on mobile devices?
      Find out this number in advance. If the prospect’s website isn’t mobile responsive, point out that they’re missing out on a considerable number of customers.

    Gathering data upfront from your customer and asking the right questions will show that you are a pro. You’ll demonstrate that you really care and thus build trust.

    Step 5: Close The Sale

    The most important part of the sales process is closing. Move the prospect to make a firm commitment to start working with you. If they aren’t ready to start immediately, offer a smaller next step, like scheduling a later meeting or sharing testimonials. Always make sure a decision-maker is participating in the next meeting!

    Up next, we’ll look at some closing strategies that can help you seal the deal with clients.

    Proven Closing Strategies To Finalize The Sale

    When you reach the end of a call with a potential client, your job is simple—get them to pay for your web design services. But while the idea is simple, getting a prospect to sign up can be very difficult in practice. To help, here are some techniques we’ve used to close more deals faster.

    Share References And Portfolio Pieces

    One of the best ways to convince a prospect is by showing them a previous site you’ve designed for a similar client or letting them talk to a current client of yours. Keep portfolio sites for the various verticals you target, like salons, restaurants, dentist offices, and the like. With permission, you can also share the contact information of a current happy customer.

    Design First, Charge Later

    One technique that worked well for us at the beginning was doing web design first, then charging later. Charging later works best if you don’t have an extensive portfolio or are branching into a new web design niche without relevant work samples. (For example, if you have a dozen restaurant websites but want to land a new hairdresser client.)

    To use this strategy, you’ll first design a draft of the new website. Then if the client likes it, they’ll pay the upfront design fee and move forward. This strategy involves more work for you upfront, but it proves to the client that you can build great sites and understand their business. And if they don’t like the website? Not to worry—you’ve created a portfolio piece you can use for another customer down the road.

    Waive The Setup Fee

    Another strategy you can use is waiving the setup fee. This fee can be a significant barrier for many new clients since they have to pay $500 USD (or whatever your setup fee is) before seeing results. Instead, just charge your monthly recurring payment. You’ll make less money in the short term, but you’ll be more likely to win over an ideal client to stay with you for a while.

    If you don’t want to design a site for free like the previous suggestion, this is a great middle option that gives the client a great site with less risk but still lets you get paid for your work.

    Show Your Process

    You can also build trust by showing your web design process, from draft to design to publication. Doing this as the final stage before you ask for a sale can help create confidence in the prospect’s mind about what you have to offer. People don’t trust what they don’t understand, so show the steps and build trust.

    Automatic Payments

    This tip applies once you close a sale and want to make sure you still get paid every month: use automatic billing. If you have to ask for payment every month, it’s a constant reminder of what they’re paying. But if you have a credit card on file or use a payment processor that charges your clients automatically each month, you can count on steady, regular cashflow.

    It’s also a timesaver for everyone—your client doesn’t have to spend time paying yet another bill, and you can rest easy knowing you don’t have to follow up for a missed payment.

    Teach And Build A Relationship

    If all else fails and the perfect prospect doesn’t want to sign up at the last minute, never burn the bridge. Don’t let the rejection get to you, and remember you’re a website expert, but also friendly and accessible and willing to help your clients understand what’s going on.

    Take the chance to explain what a client might want to look for if they decide to launch a website later. Explain what features are most important based on your knowledge. If a client doesn’t want a website now, there still may be opportunities in the future. Build trust, strengthen the relationship, and play the long game.

    Now It’s Your Turn To Find Web Design Clients

    Over the last few years, we’ve been privileged to work with so many incredible clients—all following the ideas and suggestions outlined above. The real secret was, of course, putting in hard work and focusing on growth goals. The sales techniques mentioned above helped us then convert those prospects into paying customers.

    We also used internal software that we recently released Sitejet to speed up the process and become more profitable. We designed Sitejet to help agencies grow with MRR clients by cutting site creation time by as much as 70% and streamlining client interactions. It’s created to help designers grow their business and give back time for what you love: being creative.

    Anyone can successfully grow their design agency. As we explained in the first part of this series, starting takes motivation and an effective pricing model and mindset. And as we shared in this second part, growth comes once you combine proven techniques with lots of hard work! Good luck—and we can’t wait to hear your stories in the comments to this article!

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    Education And Training (Part 3) — Smashing Magazine

    04/09/2021

    About The Author

    Victor is a Philadelphia based researcher, author, and speaker. His book Design for the Mind, is available from Manning Publications. Victor frequently writes …
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    Victor

    UX practitioners can play an important role in growing the UX maturity of the organizations and product teams they work with. This final article in a three-part series presents two additional tactics that are critical for achieving and maintaining higher levels of UX maturity: education of UX staff and education of non-UX staff on UX principles and processes.

    This series of articles presents tactics UX practitioners can use to promote the growth of UX maturity in their organizations or product teams. In part 1, I covered the importance of finding and utilizing UX Champions and showing the ROI/value of UX. In part 2, I focused on knowledge sharing and mentorship. In this third, and last, part of the series, I’ll focus on the education of both UX staff and non-UX staff.

    Figure displaying the characteristics of Chapman and Plewes’ 5 stages of UX maturity
    Chapman and Plewes define 5 stages of UX Maturity using the factors: Timing of Initial UX, Availability of Resources, and Leadership & Culture. Credit: Chapman & Plewes, 2014 [PDF] springer.com (Large preview)

    As I’ve referenced in the previous articles, Chapman and Plewes’ framework describes five steps or stages of organizational UX maturity that I’m referencing when I mention UX maturity stages within the tactics I present.

    1. Finding and utilizing UX Champions (Jump to part 1 →)
      Beginning stages: the UX champion will plant seeds and open doors for growing UX in an organization.
    2. Demonstrating the ROI/value of UX (Jump to part 1 →)
      Beginning stages justify more investment; later stages justify continued investment.
    3. Knowledge Sharing/Documenting what UX work has been done (Jump to part 2 →)
      Less relevant/possible in the earliest stages of maturity when little UX is being done. Creates a foundation and then serves to maintain institutional knowledge even when individuals leave or change roles.
    4. Mentoring (Jump to part 2 →)
      Middle and later stages of maturity. Grow individual skills in a two-way direction that also exposes more people to UX and improves the knowledge transfer of more senior UX, which should lead to a shared understanding of how UX looks and is implemented in the organization.
    5. Education of UX staff on UX tools and specific areas of UX expertise
      All stages of maturity require the continued education of UX staff.
    6. Education of non-UX staff on UX principles and processes
      All stages of maturity benefit from the education of non-UX staff.

    Education Of The UX Practitioners

    Education and continuing education are imperative to grow the UX maturity of individuals and your organization. You are less likely to find existing resources or budget for UX-focused education in Chapman and Plewes’ stages one and two. Fortunately, there are many low (under $100) or no-cost options for training that you and others in your organization can take advantage of if you don’t have a large budget.

    You should advocate training for the UX practitioners and those who are entering UX roles, to help them increase their skills, as well as to equip them with the knowledge to educate others on the value and purpose of UX. We are all in positions where we find ourselves continually educating others in order to justify UX. We can’t forget our own needs when it comes to education and training to grow our skills.

    I want to be clear that the connection between UX training of individuals and growing an organization’s UX maturity is less obvious. However, I believe a lack of training and education would inhibit further growth of UX maturity in an organization. UX practitioners need continual educational opportunities / training to grow their own personal skill set.

    This translates into greater UX maturity when the training is done at scale and all UX practitioners are learning either new skills and tools or mastering the skills and tools they currently have. This becomes how the organization “does UX” when these types of training are consistent and given to all of the UX staff.

    Here’s an example of how I see the education of UX practitioners playing out in maintaining or growing an organization’s UX maturity. Let’s say an organization in stage three – Adopting – of Chapman and Plewes model and looking to move into stage four – Realizing.

    You won’t grow your team into UX leadership roles (required for stage four) without experience and training. You could hire someone from outside of the organization to play these roles, but that would suggest the stages do not organically lead from one to the next, that outside intervention is required in the form of hiring staff who have a pre-existing skill set. I think this is likely necessary to facilitate the jump from stage one to stage two, but after that point, there are many ways an organization can use existing resources to grow. This makes education critical.

    You won’t be able to engage in effective UX prior to coding without well-honed skills. The process of discovery and design iteration that happens prior to coding (stage four) looks much different than when you initiate UX on a product that is already in code (Stages two and three). Staff need education on research and design techniques to effectively engage in these new opportunities for UX work.

    I’ll cover this more in the next section, but you will also need your UX practitioners to provide educational opportunities for your non-UX staff if you wish to spread an understanding of UX throughout your organization. Your UX practitioners will need training on workshop facilitation and communication to effectively engage your organization and bring UX to the next level of maturity.

    3rd and 4th stages of UX Maturity
    3rd and 4th stages of UX Maturity. (Large preview)

    We have many options for training providers and formats, as UX has exploded over the last decade. Many companies exist solely to provide training to businesses on UX and design thinking practices. While I don’t advocate any specific provider, I do advocate looking at organizations and individuals who might fall into categories of underrepresented populations, including minority-owned businesses and women-run businesses. You can do the background work needed to ensure the training vendor of your choice supports the values your organization holds.

    You will need to consider the critical factors of format, cost and time when choosing a training or educational format. The following table presents some of the common ways UX practitioners expand their knowledge, along with my thoughts on these critical factors.

    Type Cost [Low 1000] Time Benefit Considerations
    Conferences Low to High depending on format, registration fees, and if travel expenses involved. Budget 2 to 3 days for actual conference. Practitioners from a variety of organizations converge to share thoughts. Broad topics covered. Socializing is usually encouraged. Currently most/all conferences are virtual. Conferences in the future might become more hybrid, offering both in-person and online streaming options.
    Workshops Higher cost for outside facilitation and material. Depends on depth of training — from 4 hours to multiple days. Workshops allow groups to work together and gain experience applying the concepts learned through activities and discussion facilitated by a professional workshop facilitator. A daylong workshop might mean pulling your entire team from their work for the day. Many workshops can be done virtually, however some are still best done in-person depending on the topic, activities, and your practitioners preferences for learning. Look for reviews of a workshop and facilitator before investing in a workshop.
    Online training None to Medium. As short as an hour or as long as days depending on topic or depth. Can often be done live or on-demand. Broad selection of topics and often lower costs. Attendees might become distracted during longer training sessions. Many people are already spend too much time in front of our computers and would prefer other methods of learning and interacting with others. Consider online reviews and word of mouth recommendations, as there is a risk of lower quality training due to a low barrier to entry into delivering online learning.
    Live in-person Highest — you will pay the cost of the instruction and for the instructors to travel to your site, or your practitioners to travel to the training. Trainings can last hours or days. You will need to factor in time and value if you are sending people to training, you will likely save more time and money bringing the training to your site. Many people appreciate hands on in-person training. Activities are more engaging and participants don’t have to be in front of a computer. Most live events have ceased for safety reasons (COVID 19 vaccines have begun distribution as of the writing of this article, but are still not widely available to general populations). You need a site that will facilitate a proper experience. These trainings tend to take longer, so participants will need advanced notice to have their calendars clear.

    We have many additional resources available to learn about UX and hone our craft. You can find people writing, speaking, and sharing about UX and UX-related topics in every corner of the Internet, online chat groups, and meetup groups. I suggest being broad in your consumption of authors and resources to avoid becoming dogmatic to one set of principles. As a relatively young field, we have many people who have surfaced as experts. However, we are all learning as we go and sharing our experiences. Nothing I say, or anyone else says, is 100% applicable to every UXer in every situation, no matter what we’d like you to believe.

    Examples Of Topics And Trainings For UX Practitioners

    You have a wide variety of choices when it comes to topics for your UX practitioners to seek further education. I recommend some of the following topics, however, you know your team best and should customize to where you want your UX practitioners to grow.

    • UX Research
      Everyone on the UX team should have a foundational knowledge on conducting ethical UX research. We use research as the cornerstone to building an experience. We need to understand this in order to push our organizations to the point in stage four where the timing of UX is prior to coding. UX practitioners need enough knowledge of research to identify the opportunity (at the beginning) to advocate for research, and to bring in someone who has a UX research skillset.

    UX practitioners should understand and have comfort with common research methods, specifically interviewing, observation, and usability testing. I’m not suggesting we should stop there, however, if you aren’t a UX researcher, but are a UX practitioner, having an awareness of these methods, what the data you collect will look like, and how to use this data to inform design is mandatory.

    For organizations in the early stages of UX maturity, you are unlikely to have UX research as a specific role, but as you grow it would be wise to have UX researchers give courses to others, both practitioners and non-UX staff.

    • Facilitating workshops
      Planning and facilitating workshops is a staple tool in the UX practitioner’s toolbox. These might be design thinking, service design blueprinting, or a deep dive into prioritizing features based on user needs, business requirements, and the reality of the technology you will use to build your solutions.

    Facilitation is a skill we can learn and refine. The better facilitator the better the outcomes. You’ll see in the next section, I advocate using your UXers to facilitate some of the educational opportunities you provide non-UX staff.

    • Specific tools
      Your UX team will have tools of choice, and perhaps your organization will require strict adherence to certain tools/vendors. Your designers need depth with design and prototyping tools, while your PMs will need deep knowledge of agile and issue tracking software, and your developers will need to code in the front or backend languages that support your products. You might find it beneficial for all UXers to have an awareness of the tools other team members use. Additionally, a knowledge common productivity tool benefits everyone, including applications used for:

      • Screen sharing,
      • Presentation creation,
      • Qualitative data analysis,
      • Quantitative data analysis,
      • Survey creation and deployment.
    • Soft skills
      Communication, leadership, creativity, and many other topics that fall into the categories of soft skills are critical to developing UX practitioners to their fullest potential. A firm grasp on a diverse set of soft skills will help your UX practitioners communicate the purpose and value of UX effectively, collaborate meaningfully with other non UXers, problem solve efficiently, and grow the respect for UX throughout your organization.

    You should push for your UX practitioners to engage in training related to soft skills at least a couple of times a year, as there are vast options for topics and types of training. Additionally, many soft skills can be learned through example and implementation on the job. You might focus on setting soft skills goals as part of any mentorship program your organization develops (also check the previous article).

    • UX leadership
      You should look to grow your UX team into leaders — this goes beyond managing other UX staff, to how do they advocate UX and grow UX throughout the organization? Christopher Murphy provides some insight into the path of becoming a UX leader. You might follow the advice provided there to identify specific topics to include as part of UX leadership training.

    At a minimum, your UX leadership training should focus on how UX team members can represent UX in multidisciplinary settings, particularly where decisions around technology and transformation are being made. I’ve found these situations are most important for UX to have a strong voice, as the focus on technology and what it enables can quickly distract the team from ensuring proper attention to the experience itself.

    UX strategy plays a key role in building UX leadership. We need to understand how the components all fit together, why, and what this means for the future. Great UX leaders are able to communicate and navigate the application of business needs and UX design. You will grow your UX team’s leadership skills when they acquire additional strategy skills and the ability to convey the value proposition of UX beyond the walls of the UX team’s conference room.

    I’ve presented a few of the many options you have for exploring training for UX team members. You should push for a budget to provide material in the form of books and tools, as well as courses to grow quickly and empower your staff. You should also combine as much as you can into any type of mentorship program you have, knowing that often people learn best when able to apply what they are learning in real life.

    Having mentors encourage mentees to take what they have learned and incorporate it into their day-to-day work can increase the effectiveness of any training provided to UX team members.

    Education Of The Non-UX Members Of The Organization

    We create a larger pool of UX advocates when we provide opportunities for non-UX team members to learn more. We can do this through design thinking workshops, case studies, and showcases highlighting UX work and accomplishments, and how UX is applied to products and the product creation lifecycle. I advocate having your UX practitioners create and deliver at least some of this training. This allows the broader audience of attendees from across your organization to learn who practices UX and interact with these UXers in a meaningful context.

    From the perspective of growing UX maturity, you won’t experience much success beyond Chapman and Plewes’ Stage two if key members of your organization aren’t educated on UX-related topics. Product owners and project leaders will need an understanding of UX and how UX processes work best. If you want to shift from having a reactive UX response to products already underway. Education and training of non-UX members within an organization can open the door to allow UX growth.

    Training On UX Processes

    I’ve found myself working on a number of large digital projects using an agile framework. Often, there is training upfront to introduce team members to the concept of agile and provide a grounding in the specific methodology. We should consider providing similar training to our colleagues around UX processes.

    You don’t need to build up UX experts, but training can focus on how people might identify opportunities to work with the UX team, what UX processes look like at various stages of product development, how UX works with other disciplines across a product (e.g. change management, product development, UX working in sync).

    You can take advantage of kicking off a new project with a team, or you can have one-off training with relevant members of your organization and ask them to think about future opportunities for bringing UX into the fold. You will need to consider the following key areas for any UX training you provide to your organization:

    • Who to invite
      If working with products and product teams — POs, Devs, PMs, Directors; if working with projects like large digital transformation efforts, you’d want to include — project leader, project manager along with the others previously listed. You should strategically consider the composition of each training. If you are focusing on a single product, who are key stakeholders in need of receiving the message.

      If it is more general training, should you focus on having certain roles in each session and make it multiple sessions, or is it more conductive to have diverse roles working together to see how UX applies across roles? You should have enough awareness of your organization’s dynamics to determine how to structure the participants you invite to any training as best suited to meet your goals (see outcomes below).

    • Activities or topics
      How will you make UX concrete? You will need to create a curriculum for your training that reflects your goals and outcomes. You might want to have a high-level overview of UX spelling out the design thinking process (Figure X) and what each step would look like related to a specific product relevant to your organization and then do a deep dive into one of the steps, or do a deep dive on what specific UX roles and tasks look like.

      You should include plenty of activities that have participants working tougher and applying what they are learning to make sense of how UX can apply to what they do at your organization.

    • Outcomes
      You need to explicitly state your desired outcome. Are you trying to grow UX presence within a certain product? If so, are you making the application of UX concrete to this product? Have you invited the key stakeholders from the product team?

      Are you trying to grow UX across the organization? If so, you need to frame UX so that it is clearly relevant to multiple roles and products, or you might consider separate training sessions. Are you looking to create UX advocates from the people attending the training? If so, how are you empowering them to become this?

    Workshops Informing UX

    We frequently invite stakeholders to workshops helping to inform UX. You can use these sessions to further grow the maturity of your organization through the impact you have with the project, product, and organizational leadership. You should be strategic about who you invite to these sessions. You might consider inviting leadership to observe a session for another product in order to show how these processes play out in real life.

    If you are trying to move your organization towards implementing UX prior to coding, you will need to show the value of having these types of workshops. Workshops are a powerful tool for facilitating the understanding and growth of UX. Rather than educating participants, you have them contribute to the UX process. Your UX practitioners should facilitate these sessions.

    a board with stickers
    Photo by Daria Nepriakhina on Unsplash. (Large preview)

    Some examples of relevant UX workshops include:

    • Discovery sessions
      These workshops are invaluable for getting everyone on the same page. You should invite the entire product team to these sessions. The purpose of discovery is to learn about understanding the needs of users, the current state of product or project, define goals, identify potential pain points and user journeys.

      You have an opportunity to present/review any user research or if research hasn’t started, these sessions will feed into your research plan. You might invite other stakeholders to these sessions, including end-users for at least part of the session. Workshop activities can include idea generation activities, consensus-building activities, and affinity mapping of the ideas or pain points generated.

    • Service design blueprinting sessions
      Service design blueprinting is an increasingly popular way to bring together diverse members of your organization to take a closer look at how services are delivered to the consumers of those services. It’s beyond the scope of this article to deep dive into service design, however, there is general consensus the overlap between UX and service design is negligible. Dotted Line provides a good guide on facilitating a service blueprinting workshop.

    • Ideation sessions
      Ideation is the generation of ideas — critical to the UX process, and any processes aligned with design thinking. We need a lot of diverse ideas if we are claiming to look for unique solutions to challenging problems. I find these workshops enjoyable and can be carried out in as little as a couple of hours, valuable for when you are trying to find time with a group of busy people.

      Again, you should invite participants who are directly involved with the product or service, and stakeholders who are influential in the broader organization. You will likely have UX research to help inform the session, so having an intimate knowledge of the product isn’t required of participants. In fact, ideas from outside perspectives might help to freshen the usual group of participants’ ways of thinking. UX Collective provides a number of ideation activities I’ve used in running successful ideation sessions.

    • Feature prioritizations sessions
      You’ve collected user data, business requirements, and the effort of technology to implement your product’s features. Now you can start prioritizing what gets designed and developed, and when. You have an opportunity to work with a variety of disciplines in pulling off this type of workshop, including all members of the product team, relevant members of the business unit, technologists, and perhaps leadership.

      I would caution that involving senior leadership could lead to that person/people dictating the priority, due to the perceived (and real) power attached to their roles. You would want to manage this in advance and during the workshop. UX for the Masses shares fun ways to gamify the tasks of feature prioritization.

    I’ve provided a list of suggestions for workshop topics, however, this isn’t an extensive list. I’d argue you need to have many of these types of sessions in order to achieve or reflect certain levels of UX maturity beyond Stage two, and that these workshops serve as ways to socialize and grow UX beyond the individual UXers you have facilitating the workshops.

    Case Study: UX Research And Design Thinking Workshops For Non-UX Staff At An International Financial Institution

    I’ve had many successful training sessions to help promote the growth of UX. I’ve also learned a lot from my mistakes. Let’s go a little deeper with a case study that will highlight some lessons I learned by providing training on UX research and delivering design thinking workshops, with an international financial institution with over 70,000 employees and numerous digital products used internally and by customers.

    UX Research

    I like UX research as an entry topic because it promotes empathy with users, has methods many people are familiar with, and doesn’t require learning new tools such as Sketch or Adobe products for the training to be successful with individuals having low to no experience.

    The client had low levels of UX maturity — Chapman and Plewes Stage two at the most. A new executive had brought us in based on their experience working with our UX team at a previous employer. We were asked to help spread the word of UX and to provide product teams with concrete examples of how UX might play a role in their product design. We decided to hold two separate two-day-long (2 workshops, 16 hours each) workshops with 10 to 12 participants in each workshop.

    Participants:

    We were working closely with a UX Champion who was trying to grow UX throughout the organization. Our champion had connections across products that were used internally and undergoing a large transformation onto new technology, which we thought was ripe for focusing on the user experience of these products. Our champion identified key members of each product team to invite and give further exposure to UX research and how they might apply UX research to their products. Participants ended up being a mix of:

    • Product owners,
    • Project managers,
    • Lead developers.

    Note: There were no design roles on these products — developers were responsible for design which was an additional challenge we were attempting to address.

    Topics:

    We had a good amount of time for the workshops. Our topics reflected what we wanted to get out of the workshops (see outcomes below): why do we do research, when, what type, what do you get from it, how to engage UX research with your team — teaches people about the timing and why it is important/valuable before coding. One benefit of having the champion recruit our participants was that we knew what products they were representing, and were able to incorporate relevant examples and scenarios into our topics and activities.

    More specific components (but not all) of our agenda looked something like this, with a healthy number of breaks and non-lecture style games and activities interwoven:

    • Design thinking overview and the role of research in creating empathy.
    • UX Research Methods — generative and evaluative methods brief overview of some common methods in each category.
    • How do these methods inform design.
    • Deep dive on the method of interview — including lots of concrete examples of what user interviews might look like on the various products represented in the session.
    • Hands-on activity — interview each other using a set script focusing on the use of digital productivity tools at work.
    • Brief interview data analysis activity.
    • How the interview data shape UX Design.
    • Deep dive on usability testing.
    • Usability testing with each other using publicly accessible and predetermined websites.
    • Brief usability testing data analysis activity.
    • How does usability testing data shape UX design.
    • Participant reflection.
    • Writing a realistic research plan for your product.

    Intended Outcomes:

    The key outcome, though not explicitly stated to participants, was to open up opportunities for UX research to gain traction on some (any) of the products represented among the participants. Our agenda reflected the need to make research real and accessible to the participants. Our champion wanted to have the participants care for and take ownership over accounting for UX on their products, under the theory that UX research would have the lowest initial barrier to entry for some of the products.

    Additional outcomes we identified were for participants to understand the various types of UX research methods and when they might be used, how research informs design, and to understand where UX research opportunities might exist on their products.

    Real Outcomes

    We weren’t perfect, but we did accomplish our desired outcomes for these workshops. I think it’s important to highlight that we provided a post-workshop evaluation and received high marks as presenters and on the structure and topics of the workshop. I’m funny and personable in real life, even if it doesn’t come across in my articles.

    We were invited to a number of meetings related to the products represented in the workshops. Many of these meetings weren’t relevant or didn’t come with realistic expectations within the framework of the budget we were working with for the main client (our Champion). I think there was still value in these discussions given that UX was introduced to the broader team during these conversations, and a realistic assessment of how a product might best incorporate UX needs to include what resources are required.

    We did complete research projects on two of the products our workshop participants represented. One project involved interviewing end-users to identify potential features to add to upcoming releases — the first-time voices of the end-users had been included in creating the backlog. The other project was usability testing and identifying areas for improving the experience of an existing product. Both of these opportunities were directly attributed to the workshop and reflected the methods we dove deeper into during the workshop.

    Design thinking/ideation workshop

    We held a separate set of workshops, for the same client, focused on educating participants on a framework for design thinking, and providing hands-on examples of ideation activities. We hosted two separate three-hour workshops. Our purpose for these workshops was to reach a broader audience of decision-makers and hopefully influence the direction of UX throughout the organization.

    Design thinking is helpful for setting a framework to why we do UX, and ideation activities help to solidify some of the important ways stakeholders can help contribute to the UX process. We can show how we do our work through this type of workshop.

    Participants

    Again we relied on our internal Champion to help identify participants to invite. We invited some of the same product owners from the UX research sessions, but also expanded out to some of the upper management who oversaw budgets for various product lines (e.g. internal HR tools, Account opening/onboarding products).

    We wanted to involve people who would not typically engage in UX processes in the hopes they would learn some of the value of UX and enjoy contributing to the sessions. We also wanted to show how the participants might bring in UX practitioners to conduct similar workshops focused on a specific product with participants from the product as part of growing UX.

    Topics

    We modeled the workshop off of the Stanford d school design thinking process. You can find more information about this and a number of activities you can incorporate on the d school website. Our workshop agenda looked like this:

    • Overview of design thinking — walk through each step in the process, with examples.
    • How design thinking might apply the products represented by the workshop participants.
    • Small group activity (groups of 3-4 participants): identify a challenge common to the product or organization and ideate on solutions using common workshop ideation methods.
    • Full group reconvene and share challenges and solutions.
    • Wrap up with a discussion on how participants might apply design thinking and ideation to their products or business unit challenges.
    Stanford d school design thinking process
    Stanford school design thinking process. (Large preview)

    Outcomes

    Our desired outcomes for this set of workshops were to continue growing awareness of UX among the organization’s leadership, provide concrete examples of design thinking and UX processes and how these might apply to the products participants represented, and to excite the group about the possibility of incorporating more UX focus into their products. We were also hopeful that participants would want to work with us to create a strategy for implementing UX processes within their products and teams and promote the growth of UX within the organization.

    Real Outcomes

    We had less success with this workshop in achieving the stated outcomes. We were not invited to conduct similar workshops with any of the products represented. However, we learned lessons that we’ve incorporated into future workshops and had more success.

    The biggest lesson we learned was our pool of participants was too broad in terms of the products or business units they represented. This caused difficulty for participants to come to a consensus on the topic of focus in the small group activity. Participants had their own products or issues in mind, some of which were difficult for other participants to either understand or feel were worth prioritizing over their own issues.

    Some of the small groups spent a lot of time determining which product or problem to ideate around. Some participants felt their colleagues weren’t listening to their concerns. In hindsight, and in future workshops, our solution is to propose the problem for these broader focused groups to ideat on. We had done this for our UX research workshop, identifying some common trouble areas for participants to focus on for the activities, but we assumed incorrectly allowing participants in these design thinking workshops to ideate on solutions to internal issues would generate buy-in and make the design thinking process more meaningful.

    Longer-Term Outcome — Growth in UX Maturity

    As consultants, we played a key role in educating and demonstrating how UX can play a role in some of the client’s key products. The client did successfully grow UX to an in-house offering. I can’t say that our effort was the only reason UX took hold and grew, however, I can say that the workshops, combined with the two tactics covered in article one were powerful tools for advancing UX at this organization.

    We worked with this client over five years ago, and have engaged with them on additional work since this initial time. They have grown from what I would have said as a Stage 1 or Stage 2 maturity to being solidly in Stage 4 for most of the products within the organization.

    Series Conclusion

    As UX practitioners, it is frustrating to work in or with organizations that don’t understand what we do, how we do it, or possibly don’t value what we do. We are able to positively impact the UX maturity of the organizations we work for, even as practitioners. I’ve covered six specific ways you and your UX colleagues can help to push for growth in UX maturity in your organization through this three-part series.

    Part 1 focused on finding UX champions and showing the ROI/value of UX. You can use these tactics to grow UX at any stage of maturity, but are particularly applicable to lower maturity organizations. These tactics don’t require a large investment of resources. Organizations with lower UX maturity often are at lower levels because there isn’t a UX champion with a strategic plan and haven’t realized the value of UX because they haven’t been doing it long enough, or at all. You might find traction quickly using these tactics with an organization with low UX Maturity.

    Part 2 focused on knowledge sharing and documenting UX work and mentoring UX staff. These tactics are more likely to be successfully used in organizations of mid-levels of UX maturity (Chapman and Plewes stages 3 or 4). An organization will not continue successfully growing in maturity beyond stage 3 if knowledge sharing and documenting what’s been accomplished is not put into place. Likewise, mentoring allows an organization to maintain and grow the culture of UX, using the resource of people who have been practicing UX at the organization serving as models to those who are beginning their UX journeys.

    This third article has focused on the education of both UX and non-UX staff. These tactics are possible to implement at any stage of maturity, but become much more robust in stages 3 and beyond. Your organization will need to train UXers in order to grow their own UX maturity, and the organization can’t grow in UX maturity if this education is done in a silo where only UXers are exposed to the techniques required for successful, more mature UX in an organization.

    You can use the tactics covered in this series alone or in combinations based on the specific circumstances of your organization. You might also find other tactics that work better for your organization. I believe we should proactively share what has worked and what hasn’t worked, as a way to create a foundation of knowledge for moving UX forward in large organizations. You can document what you’ve attempted to do to grow UX and share with the rest of us on blogs, at conferences, via webinars, or right here in the comment section of this article.

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    Knowledge Sharing And Mentorship (Part 2) — Smashing Magazine

    03/26/2021

    About The Author

    Victor is a Philadelphia based researcher, author, and speaker. His book Design for the Mind, is available from Manning Publications. Victor frequently writes …
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    UX practitioners can play an important role in growing the UX maturity of the organizations and products they work with. This article, the second in a three-part series, presents two additional tactics that can be helpful for those working in organizations that have started engaging in UX, but are still at the lower to middle stages of maturity: knowledge sharing and mentorship. You can use these tactics stand alone, together, or in tandem with the ones covered previously.

    This series of articles presents tactics UX practitioners can use to promote the growth of UX maturity in their organizations or product teams. I covered the importance of finding and utilizing UX Champions and showing the ROI/value of UX in the first article of this series. Today, I’ll focus on two additional tactics for UX practitioners to grow their organization’s UX maturity in this article, knowledge sharing and mentorship.

    Chapman and Plewes’ framework (see image below) describes five steps or stages of organizational UX maturity that I’m referencing when I mention UX maturity stages within the tactics I present.

    Figure displaying the characteristics of Chapman and Plewes’ 5 stages of UX maturity
    Chapman and Plewes define 5 stages of UX Maturity using the factors: Timing of Initial UX, Availability of Resources, and Leadership & Culture. Credit: Chapman & Plewes, 2014 [PDF] springer.com (Large preview)

    The table below lists the six tactics and their relationship to UX maturity. Note that the tactics don’t build on the prior tactics, you can and should implement multiple tactics simultaneously. However, some tactics, such as mentoring, might not be possible in an organization with low UX maturity that lacks the support for a mentoring program.

    1. Finding and utilizing UX Champions (Go to Part 1 →)
      Beginning stages: the UX champion will plant seeds and open doors for growing UX in an organization.
    2. Demonstrating the ROI/value of UX (Go to Part 1 →)
      Beginning stages justify more investment; later stages justify continued investment.
    3. Knowledge Sharing/Documenting what UX work has been done
      Less relevant/possible in the earliest stages of maturity when there is little UX being done. Creates a foundation and then serves to maintain institutional knowledge even when individuals leave or change roles.
    4. Mentoring
      Middle and later stages of maturity. Grow individual skills in a two-way direction that also exposes more people to UX and improves the knowledge transfer of more senior UX, which should lead to a shared understanding of how UX looks and is implemented in the organization.
    5. Education of UX staff on UX tools and specific areas of UX expertise (coming up in Part 3)
      All stages of maturity require continued education of UX staff.
    6. Education of non-UX staff on UX principles and processes(coming up in Part 3)
      All stages of maturity benefit from the education of non-UX staff.

    I’ll focus on two tactics in this article:

    • Tactic #3
      Knowledge sharing/document what’s been done and make it available across the organization;
    • Tactic #4
      Mentorship

    These two tactics are particularly applicable for an organization at stage 3 or early stage 4 of Chapman and Plewes’ UX maturity model. These tactics serve to document and build upon existing UX accomplishments, provide UX resources for current and future staff, and create and propagate the specific UX processes and values within your organization.

    Tactic 3: Knowledge Sharing/Document What’s Been Done And Make It Available Across The Organization

    Organizations with more mature UX have well-documented UX processes, as well as a history of what they have learned through UX research and exploration through design iteration and testing. You can’t create a mature organization without lessons learned. Mature organizations do not reinvent the wheel each time they start a product or project, in terms of how UX is integrated. Organizations with more mature UX gain efficiency through documentation of the lessons learned from past UX, and consistency in how UX is practiced/applied across products.

    Each organization might have a unique culture of how information is documented and shared. Sometimes intranets and shared internal sites are highly used and easily searchable for the content you need. Sometimes, not so much. In the latter case, these repositories gather dust, and the knowledge is eventually lost in time which is replaced with something flashier or something considered more in-line with the needs of the company.

    You will need to decide what might be the best way to both document and then preserve lessons learned for the needs of your organization. Here are some options:

    • Manual sending/sharing
      Manual sharing includes one on one and group conversation about UX research and design with other professionals both within and outside of UX roles at your organization. This can include e-mailing reports and files as attachments or links for others to access. This is the most time-consuming and least impactful in terms of the ability to have others easily find your work. You’re essentially relying on word of mouth and for others to save your work to pass along to future team members. I still suggest having these conversations as often as possible. There is a lot of value in these conversations when you have them with individuals and they see your passion for UX and creating great experiences.
    A manual typewriter is displayed. A white sheet of paper is in the typewriter with the word “Sharing” typed out on the page
    Manual sending and sharing might be a valid first step in creating a documented history of the UX work done at your organization. Fortunately, we can use electronic documents that are easily distributed via email and file sharing platforms. Photo by Markus Winkler on Unsplash. (Large preview)
    • Informal meetings, one-off presentations, lunch and learns, and cross-project meetings focused on the organization’s UX work
      These are events where you can talk about relevant examples of UX from projects or products within the organization. The great parnjksvt of this is making connections between the people attending these presentations, who might otherwise not interact with each other during the course of their day-to-day tasks. As with manual sharing, this is time-consuming and relies on getting the right people in the room. You can increase the impact of these events if you record them and share out the video link with others who are unable to attend live.

    • Catalogued research and files accessible online
      This can include traditional go-to file repositories: Sharepoint sites, Onedrive, Box.com, Dropbox, and Google Drive (whatever platform works for your organization). You might also look towards licensing UX-specific platforms meant for storing and sharing UX research and product information such as Handrail, Productboard, and other collaboration tools that offer repositories. (Note: I haven’t used nor do I endorse either platform listed.)
      While any of these options offer the positive side of being accessible by anyone within the organization, each has the drawback that people need to know how to access it and how to use it. Also, each needs someone to create and maintain standards like tags and naming conventions, if it will stay manageable and useful. UXPin offers a resource detailing what you can consider documenting as part of your UX documentation, and Nielsen Norman Group offers a guide for setting up a research repository.

    A bookshelf containing hundreds of books stacked in various directions, and organized in a way that is most likely unintuitive to an outside observer
    You’ll need to make sure others will understand your file naming and organizing conventions for ease of future access. Photo by Alfons Morales on Unsplash. (Large preview)
    • Systems and guides
      Organizations reaching the highest levels of UX maturity have design standards and design systems in place that include content and code for facilitating UX consistency and standards across the organization. Audrey Hacq provides a thorough guide to what makes up a design system. Hacq, in citing the words of Jina Anne states that design systems consist of “Tools for designers & developers, patterns, components, guidelines” as well as “brand values, shared ways of working, mindset, shared beliefs.”
      The drawback with a design system is the effort you will need to put in to create and maintain the system. You aren’t likely to have the time or ability to mandate the use of the design system if you are in an organization with little UX maturity. However, you can set your sights on reaching this level of documentation, and as UX becomes more prevalent and resources are increased, the value of creating the system will overcome the inertia that might initially exist to such a large endeavor.

    You might consider a mix of the options above. For example, you should always consider including informal and one-off presenting opportunities in conjunction with something more formalized and enduring. However you decide to start documenting your UX, you need a foundation in order to grow and focus energy on other areas of UX. You don’t want to start your process from scratch each time.

    If your organization is in the beginning stages of UX you might find yourself responsible for starting the repository. You might not have control over each area or product UX work is occurring, or how documentation occurs. You can attempt to work with others in order to standardize what and how things are documented. You can also use the list from UXPin to begin documenting what you can, and add to this as you get more resources or other motivated UX practitioners join your organization.

    Case Study: Large Pharmaceutical Company With Low UX Maturity

    We were tasked with building UX capacity and documenting the accomplishments of specific UX work over the course of eight months working across product teams with a large pharmaceutical company. We conducted stakeholder and user interviews, redesigned a number of products, and did usability testing of current and future designs. We documented our processes and accomplishments with interview protocols, sketch files, journey maps, research reports, usability testing finding and recommendation reports, and decision trees to use for the creation of future designs.

    We used each of the methods listed above to share the knowledge we’d gained and document this for future staff engaging in UX work at the company.

    • Manual sending/sharing
      We worked directly with members of various teams to provide them an understanding of the research protocols and other outputs our team created. We also shared these files in an editable format for them to repurpose or use as templates for later projects. We used our contacts to identify people who might benefit from having the documents and included them in emails containing the files.

    • Informal meetings, one-off presentations, lunch and learns, and cross-project meetings
      The company was very large, with staff located across the world. We were fortunate to have an effective internal Champion who was able to identify critical individuals and teams for us to present our work too. We also spent time onsite at various locations and were able to have one on one conversations with key parties who we were introduced to while we were on site. Many of these interactions were impromptu, and would not have occurred if we did not have a presence and an insider advocating for us to share our work. We presented multiple times on the various aspects of the work we were doing, and tailored the message to be effective to the audience — e.g., tactical usability testing findings were presented to product team members, while higher-level overviews and near-final designs were presented to key executive stakeholders.

    • Catalogued research and files accessible online
      The company used a number of common platforms for archiving and storing documents. We created a UX-specific repository and tagged the content with user-friendly tags, using terminology that would be familiar to company staff across the organization. We shared the link to the page and the documents in as many forums, online, email, and in documents, as we could.

    • Systems and guides
      We didn’t create a design system. We did create a guide for making certain UX decisions for a specific set of products the company had. Essentially, a decision tree to determine if there was a need to update an element of the design, and if so, whether we had any existing information from our research and design to help inform the new element, or if new research and testing would be required. This document was shared with the appropriate members of the product teams, as well as with managers who might be able to advocate the creation of similar guides for other products as more UX work was accomplished.

    While I can’t speak to the long-term impact of our work, we left behind a foundation of UX outputs that were well documented, distributed, and accessible for reference in the future. We completed our time with the client and left them with the framework for how to continue conducting, documenting, and distributing UX work. You can use similar techniques and tailor them to the needs and culture of your organization.

    Tactic 4: Mentorship

    You, your organization, and your peers all stand to gain from an effective mentorship program. Mentorship, possibly more than any other kind of training or experience, has the potential to grow individuals’ skills, create cohesive teams, and shape the UX philosophy and processes of an organization. Mentorship is a key component of the growth of professionals in many other fields including health care and education.

    Effective mentorship can help with growing your organization’s UX maturity in that you utilize the existing resources of your more experienced UX staff to grow the abilities of the less experienced staff, who in turn push the more experienced staff to grow and learn more about their own UX practice. This two-way process of growth can compound the benefit and lead to a larger change in the products and teams the UX staff work with. You can use mentorship to start a positive reaction that can set the direction for UX growth for a long-term period of time. You need to put thought into a mentorship program if you want to maximize the benefit. Since mentorship is an inherently personal relationship between the mentee and the mentor, the connection to growing UX maturity needs to be made explicit. You might also expand the influence and understanding of UX if you choose to include team members from outside of typical UX roles in your mentorship program.

    You need to consider the following when designing your mentorship program:

    • What is the goal
      What are you trying to accomplish and what are the outcomes of your mentorship program? You should include thinking about how this program will increase UX maturity at the organizational level, and how the program will benefit participants, both as mentees and mentors.

    • Formal or informal
      Will your program be formal with guidelines for mentors and mentees to adhere to, or will it be more informal and unstructured, with loosely defined outcomes? The table below compares some key factors differentiating formal and informal mentorship programs:

    Formal Informal
    Participant Pool Predefined roles and positions are able to or required to participate. Individuals expressing interest are able to participate.
    Timeline Set timeline with milestones identified and a predefined end date. Less structured, milestones are flexible, mentor/mentee determine end date.
    Goals Program managers set generic goals, mentor/mentee refine goals using existing structure. Most goals have a relationship to the growth/benefit of the organization and the individuals. Mentor/Mentee customize goals to the needs of the individuals involved. Goals might not tie directly to the organization’s needs. Mentor/Mentee revisit goals and update them to reflect the reality of how the mentee has progressed and other factors impacting the mentee.
    Assignment Mentors and mentees are matched through a formalized process. For example, completing a questionnaire that sees who is most aligned, matching based on role/job title, or team/product based. Mentors and mentees have the opportunity to determine who they match with. For example, prior interactions suggest a potential for positive relationship, offering mentees a brief intro call with a number of potential mentors before deciding who they might want to match with.
    Activities Predefined relationship building and education opportunities, for example attending networking events, conferences, review sessions, and trainings. Participants choose which activities and the frequency. For example, a weekly coffee chat with a monthly review meeting and informal conversations as needed.
    Outcomes/Assessment Outcomes and assessment are based on a template and reflect the desired outcomes of the organization. Assessment is formalized and used to determine effectiveness of the program as part of a final evaluation. Outcomes and assessment are reflective of mentee’s needs and goals that have evolved over the course of the program. Assessment might be informal discussion and reflection.

    Whether you choose to have a formal or informal mentorship program, you can look at the line between the two as blurry. You should borrow from either side. For example, why wouldn’t you encourage coffee/tea/water walks and informal conversations as a way to build closer relationships in a formal program? And if an effective assessment exists for your organization to measure the effectiveness of your informal mentorship program, why wouldn’t you use it?

    Two people sit facing each other at a table on a sidewalk. One has their back to the viewer with an open laptop in front of them
    Casual conversations outside of your typical work setting can help create a bond between mentors and mentees. Photo by Eliott Reyna on Unsplash. (Large preview)

    You should also give deep thought to who participates in your programs. As mentorship benefits both mentors and mentees, you can use this as an opportunity to inspire and educate more seasoned staff, along with an opportunity to grow newer employees. Reverse mentoring is a potentially powerful idea to explore when thinking about maximizing the benefit of a mentoring program to growing UX maturity. This type of mentoring involves pairing more senior-level staff as the mentees, while they gain the perspective of the more junior staff. You might find many of your senior leadership are not as familiar with UX, while newer staff have the opportunity to show them what the benefits are, turning them into advocates for UX growth in the organization.

    You need to provide training and support to mentors regardless of the decision to make your program formal or informal. You cannot assume someone will make a good mentor based on how well they perform their job. We can all benefit from additional insight into research-backed ways to support mentees. An additional suggestion from research on effective mentorship programs is allowing mentors and mentees to provide input into the mentor matching process.

    Case Study: Mentoring A Large Media Company Staff Member Transitioning Into A UX Role

    I’ve had the privilege of serving as a mentor to someone transitioning into a UX research and strategy role at their organization. Initially, our relationship started as a formal client-consultant relationship, however, it evolved once we realized there would be an opportunity through informal mentorship-type activities for both of us to grow personally and professionally, as well as growing the role and maturity of UX at the media company.

    I’ll provide the details of mentoring relationships using the factors from the chart above.

    • Participant Pool
      Our mentorship relationship was highly informal. We were the only people participating in the mentorship program because we chose to form the relationship after interacting with each other through professional activities and realizing our interests and goals overlapped. We didn’t initiate our relationship as a mentorship, this developed organically.

    • Timeline
      The mentorship lasted approximately 18 months. This is notable in that the time I spent with the client was less than 12 months, we voluntarily continued our mentoring relationship and activities beyond the time I was working with the organization. In that sense, the arrangement was truly voluntary in the end, even though we initially were together as client-consultant.

    • Goals
      Our goals shifted over time. Initially, the purpose of the mentorship was to develop the UX skills of the mentee. Our goals were broad and high level — for example, learn common UX processes, gain experience with common UX research methods. As we progressed our goals become more refined — e.g., present findings to product team X and develop a protocol for usability testing. We were able to have micro-goals that we updated frequently given our constant contact and checking in. I think there was an additional benefit in that I was working on the same products and projects as my mentee. I know this isn’t always the situation, but it allowed me to have an understanding of the day-to-day challenges and requests being made of my mentee. We were then able to turn these challenges into goals to address next.

    • Assignment
      We self-assigned to each other. We determined to engage in mentorship on our own after spending weeks working together and realizing mentorship would further both of our goals.

    • Activities
      We were able to frequently collaborate given the working relationship I had. I don’t think it would be realistic for mentor-mentee relationships to have as many activities as this if you aren’t able to have frequent — almost daily — interactions. Our activities informal calls, formal assignments, attending meetings together, conducting strategy sessions to roadmap goals and related activities, observation of what I did, creating and iterating on documents together, collecting and analyzing data together, co-working at each other’s spaces, co-creating reports, attending conferences together, and sharing conversation over coffee or a meal.

    • Outcomes/Assessment
      Our assessment of the mentorship was informal and frequent. We would often discuss if we were still getting what we needed and expected out of the arrangement. Fortunately, the answer was yes. We also spent time reflecting and determining if we wanted to focus more on certain areas.

    The final outcomes benefited me, the mentee, as well as the UX maturity of the organization. I grew as a mentor and as a UX practitioner. I was forced to think deeper about the things I do and why I do them throughout the course of the mentorship. My mentee was excellent at asking me to share the logic behind why we use certain methods, why we make certain recommendations, how we present findings to different stakeholders, and what supporting information I can provide to justify my process. I found it challenging and refreshing.

    My mentee grew their UX knowledge and skills to the point they were able to lead the UX work on a number of projects. They accomplished the goals we had set out to accomplish, as well as many of the micro-goals we set along the way.

    The organization’s UX Maturity benefited equally from the outcome of the mentorship. The mentee understood when and how to implement UX in their organization. The mentee went on to justify a budget to hire an additional UX staff that reported to them (increased resources). This allowed the mentee to have time to implement UX processes on other products that were currently lacking UX attention (improved timing of UX on a number of products). The mentee made numerous presentations to leadership and was able to get a number of the staff engaged and excited to promote the growth of UX at the organization (impact leadership and culture).

    Putting These Tactics Into Practice

    I’ve covered two additional tactics for UX practitioners to grow their organization’s UX Maturity. You won’t need to spend money on either of these tactics, but they do require resources of time and access to tools for storing or sharing information. You will need to decide on many of the best ways to approach information sharing or setting up a mentorship program that works for your organization.

    Hopefully, I’ve demonstrated that there isn’t a large barrier to entry for either of these tactics. You can engage in knowledge sharing if you start documenting what you have learned from any UX work (these documents should already exist) and create an easy-to-find repository using the file storage system your organization uses. Or, you can create a list of relevant people to distribute UX-related material to and start sending them artifacts via email attachment. For mentorship, you don’t need to create a huge program with complex rules. I was able to engage in an informal relationship mentoring someone with whom I was already working with on a daily basis. Our key ingredient was a desire to learn from each other and common goals. Your organization might require some level of definition and oversight, but you might begin by looking at some of your teammates when it comes to exploring what the seeds of a mentorship program might look like.

    You can use the tactics presented here standalone or along with the ones presented in the previous article. The third and final article will focus on the education of UX staff on UX tools and specific areas of UX expertise and the education of non-UX staff on UX principles and processes. Stay tuned!

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    How To Get Web Design Clients Fast (Part 1) — Smashing Magazine

    03/18/2021

    About The Author

    Stephen Roe writes about web design at Sitejet. When he isn’t plotting world domination with his clients, he’s studying the intersection of culture, …
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    The secret to growing a successful web design business is thinking of design as a service, not a product. When you focus on recurring revenue and sell to one targeted niche, you can grow a business faster than ever.

    Starting a web design business isn’t difficult. There’s a low barrier to entry, and almost anyone with some kind of design skill can start an agency. But if we’ve learned one thing, it’s that building a successful design business takes more than just web design chops. Whether you’re a freelancer or a full-scale web design company, you’ll encounter the same problems.

    In this two-part series, we’ll share the agency growth lessons we’ve learned. In this first part, we break down the pricing model that’s worked best for us and explain how to leverage it in your business. In the next article, we’ll share proven sales techniques you can use as you scale.

    Most web designers started freelancing or taking on agency clients because they love design. But if you’ve created a design agency, you know the artistic work often gets put to the side. Instead of working on creative projects, you spend your time on business structure issues and pricing models. Client hassles take up your day. And you’re continually selling just to keep your roster full.

    The truth is that to run a successful web design firm, you need to take on the mindset of a business owner. And that’s very different than just designing. Now, you have to juggle client work and growth tasks — you’re either overloaded with work or selling hard to pay next months’ rent.

    That dangerous feast-and-famine cycle is what puts a lot of hardworking, creative entrepreneurs out of business. They’re overwhelmed with client work, then rushing to sell, and again and again. That kind of stress will make anyone think about getting a day job!

    As we grew our successful web design agency, we learned that this cycle is just the symptom of a fractured business model. To run a successful business, you need a steady stream of recurring income. This model lets you design while not stressing all the time or worrying about where your next client will come from.

    And to do that, you need to shift how you think about design — from a product to a service. In this two-part series, we’ll explain how to use this model to profitably grow your web design business.

    Recurring Revenue: The Solution For A Profitable Web Design Business

    Once you start thinking about your work as an ongoing service, everything changes. Instead of one-off sales with inconsistent cash flow and constant selling, you’ll be generating income each month with minimal maintenance work, like site refreshes and seasonal updates. And instead of a big project taking all your time, you’ll be able to sign on new clients quickly.

    The basis of a service model is recurring payments, where the money comes in without us needing to land a big client or rush to finish up a project. And that stable source of revenue leaves plenty of time to find new clients to keep our pipeline full.

    As you grow, you’ll want to focus on one metric: monthly recurring revenue, or MRR. Recurring revenue is like a subscription for your website services, and it’s money you can count on every month.

    MRR makes sense because, as a business owner, most costs are billed monthly. You have rent, salaries, electricity, phone, internet, and other expenses that repeat each month. All you’re doing is aligning your income to your costs. Doesn’t that make more sense?

    The first step to earning on this scheme is to find your breakeven number. That’s the amount you need to make each month to cover your expenses. First, calculate your one-off and recurring fixed costs. These are expenses like computers, software subscriptions, and salaries. For example, let’s say you’re a one-person agency and you spend $500 on software and equipment each month.

    Next, you’ll want to add up the variable expenses that increase with each website, like a hosting plan, security, distribution, and taxes. That amount is how much each site will cost you to keep for a month. Maybe in your case, hosting each website for a client will cost $10 per month.

    If you sell website hosting, maintenance, and updating services at $60 per month, you’ll earn $50 in profit per site. To meet your goal of $500, you only need 10 clients to pay your business expenses. What’s neat about this model is that profit is up to you. Every extra client after your breakeven number is profit—and it’s up to you how much you want to make!

    You don’t have to transition your agency or freelance business all at once. You can gradually add MRR clients alongside your big projects until the recurring revenue is enough to support you —making this an attractive model for existing designers looking to break away from the feast-and-famine cycle and start earning a steady income.

    This service model is a mindset shift, to be sure, but it’s a smarter way of doing business. To succeed, start thinking in terms of a recurring service — not a one-and-done product.

    An illustration of a magnet (placed on the left) and various sketches of avatars and wireframes (on the right)
    Attractive models can help you achieve a recurring revenue that is enough to support and assure a steady income. (Image source: Sitejet) (Large preview)

    How To Find The Perfect Pricing Tiers For Your Design Services

    There’s a science to pricing your services correctly, and it’s very different from how you might quote a larger project. Here’s the structure we use that helps us grow as fast as possible.

    Think of the price point that your target market could afford. (We’ll talk more about target markets in the next section). When you create your pricing, it’s a good idea to have more than one tier. Have at least two options: a basic plan and another package with more features. Different customers have different budgets, and you want prices that are attractive to everyone. We’ve done well with three plans priced at $30, $50, and $100 USD per month.

    Each package starts with the initial website creation and ongoing services, such as seasonal changes or site updates. To differentiate your premium tiers, add advanced features like more storage, faster updates, extra subpages, detailed traffic statistics, multilingual support, and more. Just remember, you want to be profitable on all your tiers. Make sure the services provided in each one still work out to the profitability you want. Don’t give away free work!

    We also recommend charging an upfront design fee of around $500 USD for all tiers in addition to your monthly recurring payment. This fee ensures potential customers are serious and keeps you from losing too much money if a customer quits after just a few months.

    We also recommend against ever charging web design agency services by the hour—if that’s how you do it now, consider changing your pricing method. As a designer, your goal is to get faster at designing great websites, and you shouldn’t be punished for this! For example, we developed the website builder Sitejet for our team. It cut our design time by 70%—but we still get paid the same. Our pricing scheme rewards us for efficiency, so we’re always trying to design great sites in less time.

    The final strategy for pricing is to keep experimenting. Some customers will want extra services, so test out new pricing tiers as you see fit. Don’t be afraid to try something new!

    How To Find The Right Kind Of Customers To Grow Your Business

    It’s exciting to scale a business—but the scary part is finding those first few MRR clients, especially if you’ve only ever done one-off projects before. These are the strategies we’ve learned you can use to build up your business and keep it growing.

    The first step is to create a unique brand voice, which may be different from the one you have now. Your voice for MRR clients depends a bit on the type of customers you’d like to attract. But in general, you’ll want to sell yourself as an affordable full-service website design agency. You’ll be selling to smaller businesses, focusing on excellent services at a price small and medium businesses (SMBs) can afford.

    The key to great marketing is to show how a website leads to more sales. When you work in the web development business, it’s easy to focus on the technical details behind the sites you create, but that’s a mistake. Don’t talk about a custom theme or better UX design. Instead, talk about getting featured on search engines or attracting customers who expect a modern website. We’ll cover this more in the second part of this article series.

    We’ve mentioned a few times that you should only look to SMBs at first. But why?

    There are a few reasons SMBs are the best place to start. First, SMBs bring in recurring revenue that most big clients can’t offer. Bigger clients expect a lot of work, but most local businesses will be happy to pay $50-100 USD per month for small changes like seasonal announcements. These only take a few minutes for you, which is why a lot of small sites usually result in more revenue than a few big projects.

    Second, small sites allow you to develop a portfolio quickly, which is helpful when you’re just starting to serve small businesses. If you’re designing new sites every week—instead of every few months—you’ll be able to show off your skills faster, which means it’ll be even easier to find new clients.

    And finally, small sites bring security. You’ve probably heard horror stories of designers or agencies with one or two clients. One quits for whatever reason and leaves the designers broke and desperate. The bigger your clients, the less you can afford to lose them, and the riskier your business model becomes.

    That’s why we recommend smaller clients, but a lot of them. If an agency with giant clients loses one or two, it can lead to bankruptcy. But if a handful of our clients canceled in one day, it would barely hurt our business. This helped us early on. In just a few months after using the MRR business model, we already had around 50 clients. That steady income let us hire more designers and keep growing the agency.

    An illustration portraying a sort of maze with five squiggly lines thrown in different directions while one avatar is shown on the bottom right and one avatar on the top left
    Effortless communication and collaboration with your clients can best be accomplished by optimizing and taking a closer look at your customer interaction processes. (Image source: Sitejet) (Large preview)

    How To Pick The Best Client Niche For You

    The very first MRR client is always the most challenging—where do you look? You might be tempted to visit freelance marketplaces or randomly contact every local business, but don’t! The answer is more straightforward than you might expect. You just need to choose a single vertical or industry to start with. Once you’ve excelled at one niche, you can move to others. Using this strategy, we approached various sectors and are now servicing over 70 different verticals.

    Having a narrow niche makes it easier to sell to a prospective customer. For example, let’s say you’re trying to acquire a construction client. The best way to get them interested is to show them another construction website, especially if it’s one with a similar color scheme and branding. Sticking with similar businesses makes this easy.

    You’ll also develop skills and a reputation serving this vertical. For example, if you’ve created websites for ten hair salons in your local area, you’ll quickly become the go-to designer for salon owners.

    Being the “go-to designer” in a niche will bring in free referrals since local business owners are always looking for peer recommendations.

    How should you choose a vertical? Well, start by thinking of areas where you already have experience or references. Ask yourself these questions to find a good match for your expertise and skillset:

    “What industries have you worked with before?”

    What businesses do you know about?”

    “What types of businesses have you worked in before, if any?”

    “What local businesses do you know about or use often?”

    “What interests do you have in common with various local businesses?”

    An easy way to enter a niche is to study the clients you’re already serving. If you helped a corporate cosmetics company, local salons could be an easy fit. But it doesn’t just have to be design experience. If you had a part-time restaurant job in college, love clothes and fashion, or always recommend the same barber to friends, you might have a great starting place.

    Once you have this vertical, you’ll want to create buyer personas and target everything towards them. Spend some time planning out exactly who your ideal customers are. Think carefully about what the owners care about, what their days look like, and how a website will help them grow their business.

    Do some market research to learn more about your target persona. Searching online is easy, but you can get better information by calling those types of businesses or meeting some business owners. As you gather more information, you can use it to reach more business owners in the same vertical.

    As you grow, you can repeat this process to expand into more and more verticals.

    An illustration of three avatars alongside chat bubbles and various wireframes
    Invest time in planning out exactly who your ideal customers are. What do they truly care about? What do their days look like? How will a website help them grow their business? (Image source: Sitejet) (Large preview)

    How To Find Great Clients

    As you find more clients, it’s easy to say yes to everyone. But to stay profitable, you need to focus on your strengths and only take on clients that will help you reach your goals.

    First, you want to make sure every client is happy to pay your prices. The tiers help keep you flexible for different budgets, but if a client tries to bargain down your price, it’s a red flag. It’ll be stressful to work with them once you sign them on, and they’re probably not worth the effort. Also look out for clients who ask for special favors since extra work will eat away at your profits.

    Note: Of course, if enough clients ask for a specific service, you can consider creating a new tier or adding the feature to an existing package at a fair price. But don’t make special deals with individual clients.

    As we mentioned earlier, you should also avoid the temptation of big-ticket projects. While the number seems big, you’ll earn more with smaller websites. It sounds counterintuitive that small sites would make more, but it all comes back to the magic of recurring revenue.

    For example, let’s say a potential client asks you to create a sophisticated portal website for $10.000 USD. But in the same amount of time, you could build 15 simpler sites. Those smaller sites would generate $7.500 USD in setup fees and $750 in MRR. After a year, you would have earned almost twice as much from smaller sites than the big project!

    You also need to say no if a client asks you to help with other related services, like content marketing or social media. Unless these services are part of your agency growth plan, focus only on website design. The time you spend building a content strategy or promoting on Facebook is time you could be earning more recurring revenue with web design.

    A great solution here is to partner with other agencies or freelancers that specialize in these services. If someone asks for a logo or an ad campaign, you can refer them to your colleague, and in turn, they can mention you when their clients ask for website designs.

    One of the easiest ways to get more MRR clients for your web design service is word-of-mouth marketing. Your original customers have put their trust in you, and you need to reward that trust with incredible customer service and attention to detail. You can even showcase the sites you develop for them and (with their permission) list them as references to help potential customers make a decision.

    Treat your early customers well, provide prompt and friendly service, and you’ll keep them for years to come.

    But not only are strong client relationships important for referrals, they also help keep you profitable! The most time-intensive part of your job is finding new clients and designing their site. Every month a client happily pays you, the more profit you make off the original sale.

    What We’ve Learned About Growing A Web Design Business

    Running a web design agency isn’t easy. Our sincere hope is that some of the things that work for our team will work for you as well. Our agency has been going strong for years now, and the business still runs on the same principles we used when we started. What we’ve shared above is enough to get you started, but it’s only the beginning!

    As you grow, you’ll learn strategies that help you become more efficient and identify areas where you can improve. To give you an example: We focused a lot on process efficiency and built our design and management tool Sitejet to reduce the creation time per website by 70% and optimized all customer interaction processes (e.g., feedback management) for more effortless communication. It’s created to help designers grow their business and give back time for what you love: being creative.

    Design skills are essential to making a living in the design world. But to succeed, you also need plenty of hard work and a willingness to experiment until you get it right. Start with the right mindset, and you’ll be amazed at what you can build.

    In this first part of our series, we’ve explained the basics of finding your first few MRR clients. But to keep growing, you need scalable sales to bring in a steady stream of high-quality clients. That’s what we’ll cover next: the step-by-step methods we’ve learned to scale an agency quickly.

    Stay tuned!

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    Finding A UX Champion And Demonstrating ROI (Part 1) — Smashing Magazine

    03/12/2021

    About The Author

    Victor is a Philadelphia based researcher, author, and speaker. His book Design for the Mind, is available from Manning Publications. Victor frequently writes …
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    We all benefit when we work to increase the overall UX maturity of our organizations. In this article, Victor Yocco briefly explores the concept of UX maturity, then presents two specific tactics that can be helpful for those working in less mature organizations: finding and utilizing UX champions, and demonstrating the return on investment or value of UX.

    UX maturity is the presence and level of sophistication of UX in an organization. Organizational maturity goes beyond the skills of the individuals composing the UX roles on various teams, to the UX processes, philosophies, and tools underpinning the organization’s product development and business practices. As Chapman and Plewes (2014) state,

    “Achieving great UX design is not just a function or talent of individuals, it is an organizational characteristic.”

    Knowing this, means we must strive to understand and grow the maturity of UX practice within the organizations and product teams we work with. Simply being good at our own jobs isn’t enough. As UX practitioners, we are advocates and educators of our craft within the organizations we work for or with.

    Note: This article is the first in a three-part series covering six tactics UX practitioners and managers can adopt to facilitate the growth of UX maturity at their organization.

    Let’s take a quick look at the six tactics we’ll be covering and their relationship to UX maturity:

    • Finding and utilizing UX Champions
      Beginning stages: the UX champion will plant seeds and open doors for growing UX in an organization.
    • Demonstrating the ROI/value of UX
      Beginning stages justify more investment, later stages to justify continued investment.
    • Knowledge sharing/Documenting what UX work has been done
      Less relevant/possible in the earliest stages of maturity when there is little UX being done. Creates a foundation and then serves to maintain institutional knowledge even when individuals leave or change roles.
    • Mentoring
      Middle and later stages of maturity. Grow individual skills in a two way direction that also exposes more people to UX and improves the knowledge transfer of more senior UX, should lead to a shared understanding of how UX looks and is implemented in the organization.
    • Education of UX staff on UX tools and specific areas of UX expertise
      All stages of maturity require continued education of UX staff.
    • Education of non-UX staff on UX principles and processes
      All stages of maturity benefit from education of non-UX staff.

    These tactics don’t build on the prior tactics — you can and should implement multiple tactics simultaneously. However, some tactics (e.g. mentoring) might not be possible in an organization with low UX maturity that lacks the support for a mentoring program.

    UX is a skill, it can be practiced, grown, and improved. It can also languish and atrophy if not appropriately exercised. This is true for individuals and organizations. An organization’s UX maturity level impacts all aspects of how UX is prioritized and implemented throughout the organization and its products.

    If we wish to meaningfully improve our UX practice, it is critical we look for opportunities to help grow the maturity of UX across our organization. We face a larger challenge when it comes to growing UX in a way that has impact across an organization than we do with growing our own UX skills.

    In this article, I’ll briefly discuss some of the existing models you can use to provide a framework for thinking about an organization’s UX maturity. I’ll then explore two specific tactics for UX practitioners to make an impact to help grow UX maturity within their organizations when they are in the early stages of UX Maturity.

    Defining UX Maturity

    We don’t have one agreed upon model of what UX maturity looks like at different stages. Natalie Hanson has a blog post providing a collection and discussion of various UX Maturity models up to the point it was published in 2017.

    Chapman and Plewes define five stages of organizational UX Maturity from “Beginning” which is essentially no UX, to “Exceptional” where UX has been fully integrated into the business processes, resources are plentiful, leadership understands the value of UX and how it works, and the organization’s culture is supportive and promotes UX.

    Image displaying the characteristics of Chapman and Plewes’ 5 stages of UX maturity
    Chapman and Plewes define 5 stages of UX Maturity using the factors: Timing of Initial UX, Availability of Resources, and Leadership & Culture. Credit Chapman & Plewes, 2014 [PDF] springer.com. (Large preview)

    Most of us probably work for organizations with some level of UX Maturity, meaning beyond Stage 1 where there are no resources. However, it’s also possible some of us work in organizations at the beginning or awareness stages. If you are in this situation, you might find yourself frustrated with the lack of support and understanding of UX within your organization and product teams. We should push to move our organizations and colleagues further along this UX maturity continuum if we wish for UX to grow as a field, increase opportunities to bring our peers into the fold, and ultimately to provide the best experiences for end users of the products or services our organizations offer.

    Frameworks and models are helpful for understanding how researchers and professionals have observed UX maturity growing in organizations. They allow us to understand where we are and where we are headed, if we create a strategy to get there. We need to move beyond theory and into the application of specific tactics if we want to push our organization to grow in UX maturity. I’ll present two tactics for demonstrating the value of UX and documenting progress of UX in an organization that will help grow UX maturity in the section below.

    What Can We Do To Grow Our Organization’s UX Maturity: Two Tactics

    It can feel frustrating trying to make change in large organizations. Here are some tactics UX practitioners can consider applying to their situation. These two tactics are especially helpful for organizations with less mature UX, and more opportunity to grow:

    These tactics are meant to create a broad impact across the organization and plant the seeds of UX in potentially fertile fields. I’ll tie them back to Chapman and Plewes factors composing the stages of UX Maturity as relevant within the discussion of the specific tactic.

    Tactic 1: Finding And Utilizing UX Champions

    Champions are people who enthusiastically support the growth of an innovation or idea within an organization. Researchers have long found champions are a critical component of overcoming social and political barriers to innovation within organizations. I would argue you cannot move a large organization out of Chapman and Plewes stage 1 without having a set of Champions. Champions do not need to be experts or practitioners of UX. However, we need to identify the correct people, in the right positions of power, who can advocate for UX as a concept, advocate growing UX, and push for UX resources in the form of budget and roles, if we wish to grow UX in organizations with low levels of UX maturity.

    A group of people sit around a conference table paying attention to a presenter at the front of the room
    A UX Champion can effectively guide an organization to more mature UX through building networks, getting the right people involved, and other tasks related to growing UX. Photo by Christina @ wocintechchat.com on Unsplash. (Large preview)
    A group of people sit around a conference table paying attention to a presenter at the front of the room
    A UX Champion can effectively guide an organization to more mature UX through building networks, getting the right people involved, and other tasks related to growing UX. Photo by Christina wocintechchat.com on Unsplash. (Large preview)

    Effective champions display the following types of behaviors according to some researchers:

    I’d add to these behaviors that champions need to be well educated on the idea or innovation (in this case UX) in order to maximize effectiveness. We cannot expect a champion to effectively convey the value of UX and to identify opportunities to get the right people involved if they do not have an understanding of how UX processes work, how to integrate them into existing processes, and what basic outputs and outcomes of UX work are expected. We are responsible for providing this education through conversation, examples, and providing resources supporting the champion in their learning.

    We can tie champions back to Chapman and Plewes factors of Leadership and Culture, as well as potentially the Timing of UX factor:

    • Champions should be in a position to influence leadership and culture over time;
    • Champions should be able to identify and advocate for the proper time to insert UX into existing process.

    Champions usually play this role in an informal capacity. This makes sense when we think about an organization at the fledgling stage of implementing UX — it is unlikely you would immediately go from having little to no UX, to hiring a specific role for championing the cause. Champions therefore are promoting UX in the course of their other everyday activities.

    As a UX practitioner, your goal is to find the champions within your organization, educate them on the role and value of UX, provide them with real life examples of how UX is making a difference, and work with them to identify the opportunities to insert UX into other products or processes within an organization.

    We need to be purposeful when we look to invest time cultivating a champion. You can answer these questions when looking to identify and work with a champion:

    Who are people willing to spend time and energy on ideas they believe in?

    Who might be most receptive to UX working on a product or service they are in charge of?

    Who has the ability to create and maintain networks?
    – Who would see an almost immediate benefit to having UX improve their product?

    Who has been expressing dissatisfaction with current design and development processes?

    Who can you develop a good and ongoing relationship with?

    Who believes in the organization or product and continuously pushes for both to grow and improve?

    You can pick and choose which of these questions might apply most to the situations you are trying to find a champion, or you could use these questions as filters, start with the largest list of potential champions you can think of, then remove names when they don’t meet the qualifications. Your remaining names are the people you can pursue to become UX champions within your organization.

    Case Study: Finding And Utilizing A UX Champion At A Large International Logistics Company

    You might think it is a fairly daunting task to quickly identify an effective champion within your organization. This case study will show the opposite can be true. Within one month, I was able to identify UX champions in an organization I’d never worked with. Within three months, the champions had created meaningful change, identified more opportunities than we could handle with the resources we had, and set the course for a bright future for UX within the organization.

    A major logistics company serves as the example for this case study. The company had familiarity with UX and CX, even espousing that it was transforming itself into a customer first organization. Unfortunately, these words were not reflected in the UX integration throughout the company.

    I would classify the organization at Chapman and Plewes adopting stage in some products, however, it was clear other products or projects were only at the awareness stage (stage 2) in that there were no UX processes. This includes the project I was assigned to when I joined as a consultant. There were scattered products receiving some UX attention — one off efforts being run by small UX teams focusing on addressing key issues brought up by major clients. There was some legacy of having UX in the past, however, after many years of UX work being done in various pockets of the organization, there was still no true UX process identifiable across the company, UX was not required for products or workstreams, and when budgets contracted, UX titles were some for the first to be eliminated.

    The company was undergoing a complete backend technology transformation in order to move it’s many disparate entities onto the same technology platforms. When I became involved, I was brought in to see how to infuse UX into the process. I knew this was going to be challenging, as the ways of working had already been defined and the focus was on getting things quickly to production, with developers also doing the design based on requirements created by large groups of product owners and managers.

    I began by listening. I sat in on meetings for different groups involved in the project. I interviewed many client stakeholders to understand some of their habits and how we could integrate UX into the current ways of working. I mapped out relationships between products, projects, people, and outcomes/goals. There was a huge appetite for the UX work, but much less appetite to incorporate the process into the already break-neck pace of the development underway. We worked to find ways to contribute to the current development efforts through testing, and found we were able to get a foothold into some of the key areas the effort was focusing on.

    Specifically, what we did was take on a UX research and design project with a product owner who we’d identified as key to having as a champion during our preliminary interviews with stakeholders. This champion was ideal because they were highly motivated, well connected with people in powerful positions across the company, and perhaps most importantly, had a product that was key to the success of the endeavor and was in a position to immediately have us start conducting research that would lead to design.

    I want to note here that the champion was not an executive level employee. They did not have the power to make people do things just because they told them to. This champion had all of the traits referenced in research on the role of an innovation champion:

    • Pursuing The Idea
      Our champion traveled, spent time in meetings and workshops, reached out to countless others, educated themself, and spent time outside of their typical duties in order to push for UX to grow in the organization.
    • Expressing Enthusiasm And Confidence About The Success Of The Innovation/Idea
      Our champion maintained a positive attitude and was able to readjust without giving at multiple points during our time there.
    • Persisting Under Adversity
      The general conditions on the ground were adverse to UX — with the focus on production. However, there were other mountains that were in the way that our champion needed to overcome. One specific example was that there was immediate and then constant pushback from colleagues on the ability for the product to incorporate research and redesign. This was relentless, however our champion did not let it stop them.
    • Getting The Right People Involved
      Our champion was well connected and knew how to get the right people involved. They had been in the organization for a decade and had a stellar reputation. For example, they knew the right executives and could get them to attend meetings to make a statement on the need for UX, when they were facing the adversity referenced in the bullet above.
    • Building Networks
      Our champion introduced us to key people, set up meetings between people across products and teams, and had the ability to get the right people to network without the need of being present in every meeting themself.
    • Taking Responsibility
      Our champion assigned and delegated tasks as needed, but they also took it upon themselves to review all work, spend time learning UX processes and value, and advocate for UX.
    A long hallway leads to an open door revealing a greenhouse full of plants
    Our UX Champion was able to guide us down the right path and open doors to allow UX to start maturing in their organization. Photo by Claudel Rheault on Unsplash. (Large preview)

    This case study highlights the power and importance of a UX champion in growing UX in an organization. Thanks to the presence of our champion, we used our foothold to gain the ear of key executives as well as many champions who were able to advocate a need to “walk the talk” on saying we were customer focused. This allowed UX to define some key processes and contribute to the broader group.

    While our work there did not last beyond the end of this key workstream, when we left there had been an established library of reports, a defined process for UX to integrate with building technology, and a philosophy shift that not only did the words customer focused need to be stated, but the actions of customer-focused behavior needed to be reflected in what was being done.

    Additionally, the champion had secured a new UX resource as a permanent hire for their product, they had a backlog of UX projects to complete, and had created a larger network of UX practitioners across the organization than had previously existed.

    Tactic 2: Demonstrating The ROI/Value Of UX

    As UX practitioners, we often focus on the value our work provides through the lens of a more satisfactory, efficient, or enjoyable experience. We take pride in meeting our users’ needs.

    However, we work in settings where decisions are scrutinized based on their impact to the bottom line of profit and loss. We avoid reality if we don’t acknowledge the need to justify UX based on the return on investment a business or organization can expect. However, ROI can be more than a monetary calculation, with other metrics and key performance indicators useful for showing how UX impacts an organization or product.

    Nielsen Norman Group notes ROI encourages buy-in, which is key for growing UX in organizations less familiar with the value UX work brings. NNG also states there are three myths that tend to prevent us from moving forward with calculating UX:

    • The ROI of UX is all about money;
    • The ROI of UX has to be perfectly accurate;
    • The ROI of UX has to account for every detail.

    You will need work to overcome these myths as they might exist within your organization as you start to measure UX ROI if you want to start increasing buy in for UX.

    You can use a number of different metrics to show ROI, as NNG notes, it isn’t limited to money. Your product and industry might best dictate what metrics or key performance indicators tell the story of the ROI of improving UX. Yes, if you design for an e-commerce site, increasing conversion and sales will be a story you’d want to tell. But this tale might focus on additional metrics such as speed to completing a task, cart abandonment, or ratings on an app store or review platform.

    A photo of a laptop screen displaying 4 charts showing line and bar graphs comparing different user metrics
    You should look beyond money when thinking about how to show the Return on Investment of UX for your organization Photo by Luke Chesser on Unsplash. (Large preview)

    I do believe many executives, across industries, are looking for the financial benefit of the decisions they make. We do need to present a business case for anything we propose that will cost money or resources such as time, training, and tools.

    At face value return of investment is the increase in value or profit (return) an investment (in this case adding UX resources to a product) divided by cost (investment) in that resource (budget, UX software subscriptions, UX training, etc.). There isn’t a magic number, but you can assume you’d like the final number to be greater than 1, suggesting a positive return on the investment. You can potentially consider many items as part of what goes into the cost and return, depending on the product.

    Anders Hoff provides a website roi calculator. Human Factors International provides six different calculators depending on what you are trying to measure, from increased conversion to increased productivity, to reduced costs on formal training and reduced learning curve and more.

    Moving beyond the specific monetary return requires deeper research and/or collecting analytical data. You will use these metrics to tailor your conversation on the need to grow UX to a specific audience that might. In other words, for some of these metrics you might benefit from being currently low or less than desirable, as they bolster your case for improving an experience to enhance the return.

    Many product teams do collect analytics, even if they aren’t invested in UX, as this has become industry standard and easy to do. However, if you don’t know how to use these analytics, or haven’t had upfront conversations about what to collect, you’ll need to connect with the people in charge of collecting and reporting analytics to ensure the data you need will be available.

    • Finding information/navigating a site or application
      How long does it take a user to go through a typical workflow? Do they encounter errors? Do they drop before reaching a critical destination, but after starting down the path?

    • Ratings on app store or industry rating platforms
      How are users rating the current experience? What qualitative information are they providing to support their ratings? Does any of this tie back to UX or would any of it be addressed with improved UX.

    • Use/time spent
      Overall visits or time spent on an app or using your site. If you provide information or an experience that needs people to focus and pay attention this might be a number that is low and you think go up. However, if you are providing a way to apply for goods and services, or do something like pay a utility bill, you might want to focus on how time spent could be reduced as a good return for users.

    • Service/support calls and the frequent topic of calls
      How frequently does your support receive calls or emails related to usability issues, or issues that could be easily resolved with an improved UX? My experience has suggested confusing login credentials and inability to self service basic account issues online are frequent reasons people contact support. These are UX issues with a direct cost — and most companies know the cost of their support center calls. How much would you save by reducing these calls with better UX?

    These are all examples of ways you can communicate ROI to your stakeholders, as part of a justification to grow UX in your organization. You need to determine what metric might speak clearest to the audience you are hoping to sway.

    Case Study: Demonstrating ROI/Value Of UX At A Medical Insurance Provider

    A large medical insurance provider had acquired a number of small providers over the past decade. Each of these separate companies had different systems their agents used. The company undertook and effort to shift all agents onto the same, new to everyone, platform.

    The company planned the rollout in phases focusing on geographic regions. Initially, the company had no UX roles or processes, and they did not intend to account for any UX in their budget. Independent agents who were part of the first phase immediately stopped running policies through this provider. Exclusive agents flooded the call center with cries for help, needing to be walked through basic everyday tasks such as running quotes and binding policies. The provider pushed pause on subsequent releases while they determined how to best move forward.

    I was brought in, along with my colleagues, to form a usability workstream on this project. However, we knew that budget was tight and we would need to show our value. We immediately engaged end users in a series of interviews and usability testing. From there, we made design recommendations, from small tweaks to major overhauls. Some of them were adopted, others were not considered feasible. The project moved on to release the usability fixes to the phase one agents, and into the subsequent phases of release.

    The project leadership had to request any future budget for UX on the project from an executive committee. Project leadership knew what was meaningful to convince executives UX was making an impact, and therefore had a positive return on investment. We had a workshop with project leaders to determine key metrics. We landed on user satisfaction, calls to the call center requesting assistance, number of quotes run, and many other industry specific methods.

    A photo displaying a laptop on a desk. Two hands rest on the laptop keyboard. The laptop screen displays various charts reflecting an analytics dashboard.
    The project team developed a dashboard to display metrics they were collecting to present the case for continued UX budget to the Organization’s leadership. Photo by Myriam Jessier on Unsplash. (Large preview)

    I need to note the importance of collecting benchmark metrics here. For example, We weren’t able to speak to the increase or decrease in the number of quotes run, because this metric wasn’t being purposefully tracked during phase one. However, we set a line in the sand and from that point forward we created a benchmark that could then be compared in future updates and releases.

    Using a combination of user surveys, interviews, and data analytics, we were able to create the case that phase 1 users had the lowest satisfaction, but was trending upward, with the recipients of the UX improved phase 2 showing higher initial satisfaction, that UX was making an impact on reducing calls to the call center, and as noted we started purposefully documenting specific analytics. Project leadership presented these findings to the executive committee as part of their ask for continued funding — which was approved.

    Fast forwarding a few years, UX remained onboard the project, with a budget for testing and revising designs prior to release, and was touted as a must have part of any future projects and digital products.

    Conclusion

    We all stand to benefit from increasing awareness and growing UX maturity in our organizations or on the product teams we work with. As practitioners, we are responsible for advocating UX to others.

    I’ve presented two tactics that are especially potent in less mature UX organizations, however, they could be useful in any organization — especially larger ones where UX might be more robust on some products or projects (and almost unknown on others). The tactics highlight the need to choose the right people to be persuasive in your organization and use data in supporting our arguments for UX to play an expanded role.

    The next article in this series will explore internal processes we can take to document and share UX work that has occurred, and mentorship needed to take UX maturity to higher levels. The final article will discuss education of both staff with UX roles and staff who do not have UX roles. Stay tuned!

    Author Note: I want to thank my colleague Dana Daniels for assistance with background research on UX maturity models.

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    How To Create A Porsche 911 With Sketch (Part 3) — Smashing Magazine

    08/07/2020

    About The Author

    Visual and UI/UX Designer, the author of dozens Adobe Photoshop and Sketch tutorials. Espresso addict. Watch enthusiast.
    More about
    Nikola
    Lazarević

    This is the third and final part of the tutorial in which we’ll create the wheels (rims and tires), and add all the final touches (including the racing decals on the car’s body). This tutorial is geared more towards experienced illustrators, but if you’re new to Sketch, you should be able to profit from it, too. As you’ll see, all of the steps are explained in great detail. Still, you may want to read Part 1 and Part 2 first before we dive into the final details of the illustration.

    We continue our tutorial with the wheels of our Porsche 911 car, but before we proceed with the next steps, I’d like to shine the spotlight on the famous Fuchs wheels that were designed in the shape of a cloverleaf (or a wing). First, a bit of history:

    “The Fuchs wheel is a specialty wheel made for the first Porsche 911/911S model in the early 1960’s. Designed in conjunction with Otto Fuchs KG, Porsche modeler Heinrich Klie, and Ferdinand Porsche Jr., the Fuchs wheel was the first lightweight forged wheel to be fitted to a production automotive vehicle. They provided the rear-engined Porsche 911 sports car with a reduction in unsprung mass, through a strong and lightweight alloy wheel.”

    — Source: Wikipedia

    We’ll start with the design of the tires first.

    Tires

    Un-hide the wheel base in the Layers panel. Turn off Borders and set Fills to #2A2A2A. Then, duplicate this shape, change Fills to #000000, move it behind the base wheel (right-click on it and choose Move Backward) and push it 20px to the right.

    Tip: Holding Shift + will move the selection in 10-pixel increments.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Let’s start working on the tire design. (Large preview)

    Select the base wheel and add some guidelines to make alignment of all elements easier. To do this, show the Sketch rulers (press Ctrl + R). Then, add a vertical guideline at the center of the base wheel with a click on the upper ruler, and do the same for the horizontal guide on the left ruler.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add a vertical and a horizontal guideline at the center of the ‘base wheel’. (Large preview)

    Temporarily turn off the guidelines by pressing Ctrl + R on the keyboard. Create a tiny rectangle with a width of 2px and a height of 8px, with the Fills set to #000000 and the Borders turned off. This rectangle will serve as the base unit for creating the treads (a.k.a. the tread pattern). Center the rectangle to the base wheel horizontally.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the base unit for the treads. (Large preview)

    Zoom in close enough (here, I zoomed in to 3200%), choose Transform from the top toolbar, select the top middle point and push it 2px to the right, then select the middle bottom point and push it 2px to the left to make it look slanted.

    Note: If you don’t see the Transform tool in the top toolbar, you can add it there via ViewCustomize Toolbar… or you can use the keyboard shortcut Cmd + Shift + T.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Transform the tread base unit and make it look slanted. (Large preview)

    Turn back on the guidelines (Ctrl + R) and make sure this rectangle is selected. Put the rectangle into a group by pressing Cmd + G on the keyboard. Give this group the name treads.

    We will use the Rotate Copies tool to create the treads around the wheel base. Like Create Symbol, Rotate Copies can be one of those features that will save you a lot of time and effort!

    Note: If you are using Sketch version 67.0 or 67.1, you may experience a bug with Rotate Copies operation. If this happens, you will need to create the treads around the wheel base manually; or (better), you should update to v. 67.2 (or later) where this issue has been resolved.

    Make sure the rectangle inside the group treads is selected, then go to LayerPath → select Rotate Copies. A dialog box that will open will let you define how many additional copies of the selected element to make. Enter 71 so that in total we will have 72 rectangles around the wheel base that will be the treads. Press Rotate in the dialog box. After you have entered this value in the dialog, you will be presented with all of the rectangles and a circular indicator in the middle.

    Tip: Performing this step in Sketch is very CPU and memory intensive! If you are working on a modern machine, probably you will not experience any issues; but if your Mac is a bit older, then your mileage may vary. In general, when working with a large number of copies, try to first turn off Borders to avoid getting stuck and to achieve the result of the operation faster.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Use the Rotate Copies feature to create the treads. (Large preview)

    Now, move this circular indicator down until it is located precisely at the intersection of the guides — and voilà! we have 72 rectangles evenly placed around the wheel base. When you’re done, press Esc or Enter. Note that if you miss putting the circular indicator (the center of rotation) right at the intersection of the guides, the rectangles won’t be distributed perfectly around the wheel base so be careful.

    Note: The Rotate Copies tool doesn’t create a compound shape in the newer versions of Sketch (version 52 or later) and instead creates (and rotates) separate copies of the shape. By putting the first shape into a group we’ve secured that all created and rotated shapes are inside this group named treads.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘treads’ group created. (Large preview)

    Select the base wheel again, duplicate, position it above treads in the Layers panel list, and scale it down by 14px. Change Color to #3F3F3F and turn on Borders — set Color to #000000, Position to Inside and Width to 1px.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the tire details. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this circle, turn off Fills and set the Border Width to 20px. We only want to show 24 of the Borders14 on the top left side and 14 on the bottom right side. To do that, type in the Dash field r*π*0.25 where r is diameter of the circle (254px in my case), 0.25 is 25% (or 14) of the border, and π is 3.14.

    So in this case enter the following formula in the Dash field: 254*3.14*0.25, and press Enter (or Tab) on the keyboard.

    Note: If you enter a number in the Dash field and press Tab on the keyboard, Sketch will automatically fill the Gap field with the same number. Same thing will happen if you press Enter.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Let’s show only 2/4 of the borders. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the circle, scale it down a bit, set the Borders Width to 12px and apply an Angular Gradient with the following properties:

    1. #9D9D9D
    2. #000000
    3. #000000
    4. #595959
    5. #000000
    6. #000000
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Set an Angular Gradient on the circle shape. (Large preview)

    Then, apply a Gaussian Blur effect with an Amount of 4.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply a Gaussian Blur. (Large preview)

    Once again, duplicate the circle, turn off Gaussian Blur and scale it down. Turn on Fills, make sure it is still #3F3F3F, set the Borders to Outside position and Width to 1px. Change Color to Linear Gradient and use #000000 for the first color stop and #444444 for the last color stop.

    Add Inner Shadows — for the Color use #FFFFFF at 20% Alpha and set Blur to 2; then apply Shadows — for the Color use #000000 at 90% Alpha and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Inner Shadows effect added. (Large preview)

    Now it’s the perfect time to add a bit of a texture! Select and copy the wheel base shape, paste it on top, then Move Backward once so it sits just beneath the circle we’ve just created. Set Fills to Pattern Fill, Type to Fill Image and choose the bottom right pattern. Set Opacity for this shape to 10%.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Now add a bit of texture. (Large preview)

    Select the circle on top, duplicate, turn off Borders, Inner Shadows and Shadows. Set Fills to #000000 and Opacity to 100% and scale down this circle by 32px. Apply a Gaussian Blur with the Amount of 4.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    (Large preview)

    Push it down 3px, then duplicate and move the duplicate 6px up.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Duplicate then move the duplicate up. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the last circle, turn off the Gaussian Blur, push it down by 3px and scale it down by 4px. Add a Shadows effect with the Color set to #FFFFFF at 90% Alpha and Blur set to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Duplicate the circle again, push and scale it down a bit. Almost there! (Large preview)

    Now, duplicate this circle, turn off Shadows and scale it down a bit (by 2px). Turn on Borders, set position to Inside, Width to 1px and apply a Linear Gradient:

    1. #CCCCCC
    2. #A6A6A6
    3. #A4A4A4
    4. #CFCFCF
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply a Linear Gradient. (Large preview)

    Change Fills to Angular Gradient with the following properties (attention! it’s a long list of color stops):

    1. #D3D3D3
    2. #ACACAC
    3. #D8D8D8
    4. #B4B4B4
    5. #8F8F8F
    6. #B2B2B2
    7. #C4C4C4
    8. #A4A4A4
    9. #C3C3C3
    10. #ADADAD
    11. #ADADAD
    12. #949494
    13. #BBBBBB
    14. #929292
    15. #C2C2C2
    16. #B4B4B4
    17. #8F8F8F
    18. #B4B4B4
    19. #D8D8D8
    20. #A9A9A9
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply an Angular Gradient. (Large preview)

    Then, add an Inner Shadows effect — set Color to #000000 at 50% Alpha and set Blur and Spread to 2.

    Duplicate, scale it down by 14px, change Fills to #434343 Solid Color, Borders position to Outside, and Inner Shadows properties to: Color #000000 at 90% Alpha, Blur and Spread set to 24.

    Then add two Shadows effects:

    • first — Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha; Y: 2; Blur: 5
    • second — Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha; Blur: 2
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add two Shadows effects. (Large preview)

    Again, duplicate the shape, scale it down by 8px, turn off Fills, Shadows and Inner Shadow, and set Borders Color to #414141.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Duplicate and scale down the circle. (Large preview)

    Switch to the Oval tool (O), and draw a circle from the intersection of the guides. Turn off Fills, set Borders Color to #575757, position to Inside and Width to 1px.

    Duplicate, scale it down a bit and make sure the border Width is 1px. Repeat this seven more times, so at the end you have nine concentric circles. Make sure that all Borders Width are 1px. Use the image below as reference.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The nine concentric circles. (Large preview)

    Select all the concentric circles and put them into a group.

    Rims

    We will start working on the rim design next.

    Draw a circle from the intersection of the guides, then draw a rectangle on top and center it horizontally to the circle.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the rim design. (Large preview)

    Select this rectangle, double-click on it to switch to vector editing mode and move the points until you have something like on the image below. Select the top two points and set the Radius to 20.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Set the radius of the top two points. (Large preview)

    We will use Rotate Copies again to distribute this shape around the circle. Select both — circle and the modified rectangle — turn off Borders and place them into a group. Now select the modified rectangle, go to LayerPath, select Rotate Copies, enter 4 in the dialog box (so we’ll have a total of five shapes), click Rotate, and align the circular indicator to the intersection of the guides. When done, press Esc or Enter.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Use Rotate Copies to distribute this shape around the circle. We’re getting closer to the cloverleaf design! (Large preview)

    Select all shapes inside the group and apply a Subtract operation from the top toolbar. Add Inner Shadows effect — for the Color use #FFFFF at 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2. Then apply Shadows with Color set to #000000 at 70% Alpha and both Blur and Spread set to 2. Finally, change Fills to #000000.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Subtract, add Inner Shadows and Shadows, change Fills to black. (Large preview)

    Draw a circle from the intersection of the guides but make it a bit bigger than the shape below, then draw a shape and center it horizontally to the circle. Select both, turn off Borders and put them into a group. Select the shape and perform a Rotate Copies operation. Enter 4 in the dialog box (so again, we’ll have a total of five shapes), click Rotate, and align the circular indicator to the intersection of the guides. When ready, press Esc or Enter.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Rotate Copies feature is useful again. (Large preview)

    Select all shapes inside the group and apply a Subtract operation from the top toolbar. Add an Inner Shadows effect — for the Color use #FFFFF at 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2. Change Fills to #131313.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Subtract, then add Inner Shadows. (Large preview)

    Now, we will create one rim bolt head.

    Zoom in close enough (I zoomed in to 400%) and draw a circle. Set Fills to #4F4F4F, change Borders position to Outside, Width to 1px and use #8F8F8F for the Color. Add one more border but this time use #000000 for the Color, set position to Center and make sure the Width is 1px.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create a bolt head — first steps. (Large preview)

    Draw a rectangle in the middle of the circle, turn off Borders, enter vector editing mode, hold Shift and click on the right segment to add a point in the middle, then do the same for the left segment. Push those points 2px to the left and to the right to create a hexagonal shape. Apply a Linear Gradient for the Fills — use #AEAEAE for the top and #727272 for the bottom color stop. Add Inner Shadows using #000000 at 50% Alpha for the Color and set Blur to 2, and apply Shadows using #000000 at 90% Alpha for the Color and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the bolt head. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the hexagonal shape, enter vector editing mode, select all the point on the left side and push them 1px to the right, then select all top points and push them 1px down, push the bottom points 1px up and the right points 1px left. Clear the Shadows and modify the Linear Gradient:

    1. #8F8F8F
    2. #979797
    3. #A4A4A4
    4. #636363
    5. #4A4A4A

    Now apply an Inner Shadows effect. For the Color use #000000 with 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The bolt head details, now with the gradient applied. (Large preview)

    Select all the shapes that we used to create the bolt head and group them into a bolt head group. We can Create Symbol out of the bolt head group and we can use it as many time as we need it.

    To create the new Symbol, select the bolt head group, right-click on it, and choose Create Symbol from the menu. The dialog box Create New Symbol will appear, give a name to the symbol (bolt head) and click OK.

    Now we need to distribute the bolt head symbols around the circle. Duplicate the symbol, choose Rotate from the top toolbar, drag the crosshair marker to the the intersection of the guides, and rotate it 72 degrees. Continue duplicating and rotating the symbol in 72-degree increments, without letting the selection go.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Distribute the ‘bolt head’ symbols around the circle. (Large preview)

    Now select each symbol instance and adjust the angle of rotation to 0 degrees.

    Tip: I’m suggesting to initially adjust the angle to 0 degrees so that you can better see the process and how the bolts will look like when placed on the rim. Once the rim bolts are in place, though, my recommendation is to experiment some more and try setting a different angle of rotation for each bolt symbol. This will make the wheels look more realistic — after all, in real life it’s much more likely to see rim bolts at random angles than aligned perfectly to 0 degrees!

    Finally, select all the instances of the bolt head symbol, place them into a group bolts and perform a Move Backward once.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The group ‘bolts’ is now finished. (Large preview)

    Draw a shape, set Border Color to #CFCFCF, set Width to 1px and position to Inside, and use a Linear Gradient for the Fills:

    1. #5F5F5F
    2. #B5B5B5
    3. #CBCBCB

    Then add Inner Shadows effect using #000000 at 30% Alpha, and Blur set to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the rim details. (Large preview)

    Grab the Vector tool (V) and draw two shapes that we will use for the highlights. Use a Linear Gradient for the Fills — use for the top color stop #F3F3F3 at 100% Alpha and the same color for the bottom but at 0% Alpha. Use the same gradient settings for both shapes and also apply a Gaussian Blur with the Amount of 1 to both shapes.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the highlights. (Large preview)

    Select all shapes that we’ve just created, group them and distribute them evenly around the rim. Use the same method that we used for the bolt heads.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Distribute the shapes around the rim. (Large preview)

    Select the Oval tool (O) and draw a circle from the intersection of the guides. Turn off Borders and use Linear Gradient with colors set to #D8D8D8 for the top stop and #848484 for the bottom stop. Use Inner Shadows and Shadows to make it look slightly raised.

    Let’s add a light Inner Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #FFFFFF at 80% Alpha
    • Blur: 2

    Then, add a dark Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha
    • Blur: 2

    Finally, apply a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha
    • Blur: 2
    • Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the circle in the middle and apply all the styles. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this circle, scale it down a bit, turn off Inner Shadows and Shadows, turn on Borders and add the first border:

    • Color: #B5B5B5;
    • Position: Outside
    • Width: 1px

    Then add a second one on the top:

    • Color: #656565
    • Position: Center
    • Width: 1px
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Work on the details in the center of the rim. (Large preview)

    Let’s finish the wheel design by adding to the rim the Porsche emblem.

    Note: Recreating the original Porsche logo for the rims, all in vectors, is outside of the scope of this tutorial. There are a few options — you can create it yourself by following the same basic principles outlined on these pages; you can download the logo from Wikipedia in SVG format and then try to modify it; or you can download a copy of the logo in vector lines from my website (porsche-line-logo-f.svg). This copy of the Porsche logo was created by me from scratch, all in vectors, and this is the variant that I recommend you to use.

    After downloading the logo file (porsche-line-logo-f.svg) bring it into our design.

    Switch to the Scale tool in the top toolbar, and in the dialog box enter 20px in the height field, to adjust the size of the logo. Align the logo horizontally with the circle below.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the Porsche logo to the center of the rim. (Large preview)
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche emblem in the center of the rim (detail close-up). (Large preview)

    Completing the wheels — two possible workflows

    Since a copy of the front wheel (once it’s complete) will be used more than once in our illustration, we have two options now:

    • A. We can complete the front wheel design, duplicate the wheel, make a couple of tweaks, and use the duplicate as the rear wheel. This is the easiest variant.
    • B. Or, for learning purposes, we can use a workflow involving the use of nested symbols. This is the more interesting option which I’ll explore in more detail in a bit. Buckle up!

    A. Workflow #1: duplicate the wheel and adjust the copy

    Pick up the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape on top of the wheel. Turn off Borders and Fill the shape with black #000000 color. Apply Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 10. This way we will recreate the shadow from the car body over the wheel — just an extra bit of realism added.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the shadow from the car body over the wheel. (Large preview)

    Select the wheel group, wheel base copy layer and the shadow shape layer and group these into a front wheel group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the ‘front wheel’ group. (Large preview)

    Now that the wheel is ready, duplicate the front wheel group, rename the group in the Layers panel list to rear wheel and drag it to the right to its place.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    [Move the ‘rear wheel’ group to its place. (Large preview)

    Select the wheel group inside and push it 20px to the right, then select the wheel base copy layer and push it 20px to the left. The rear wheel is ready.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Move the ‘wheel’ group to the right, and the ‘wheel base copy’ layer to the left. The ‘rear wheel’ group is ready. (Large preview)

    B. Workflow #2: use nested symbols

    Pick up the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape on top of the wheel. Turn off Borders and Fill the shape with black #000000 color. Apply Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 10. This way we will recreate the shadow from the car body over the wheel — just an extra bit of realism added.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the shadow from the car body over the wheel. (Large preview)

    The wheel is finished. Now we’ll use a symbol and a nested symbol to create the front and rear wheels.

    Select the wheel group, wheel base copy layer and the shadow shape layer and group these into a front wheel group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the ‘front wheel’ group. (Large preview)

    Here we’re coming to the more interesting bits! Select the wheel group and create a wheel symbol, then select the front wheel and create a front wheel symbol. The front wheel symbol is now a nested symbol!

    Tip: You can learn more about nested symbols in the Sketch help pages dedicated to this topic, and in the following article written by Noam Zomerfeld.

    Nested symbols are regular symbols that are made from other symbols that already exist in your Sketch file. In this case, the front wheel symbol is made from the wheel symbol, so the wheel symbol is nested inside the front wheel symbol.

    What could be better than one symbol? Perhaps a symbol with another one inside it — enter Nested Symbols! This feature gives you a lot of possibilities when combining symbols together. Nesting symbols can be especially useful when you need to create variations of one symbol.
    — Javier-Simon Cuello, “Unleashing The Full Potential Of Symbols In Sketch

    Now, go to the Symbols page in Sketch, duplicate the front wheel symbol, select the wheel group and push it 20px to the right, then select the wheel base copy and push it 20px to the left. At the end, rename this symbol to rear wheel.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Front and rear wheel symbols. (Large preview)

    Go back to our design, select and duplicate the front wheel symbol, then using the Inspector panel change the symbol to rear wheel, rename the symbol in the Layers panel list to rear wheel and drag it to the right. Done!

    So far it may seem that we’ve spent more time playing with nested symbols, compared to the other workflow. That’s true. But also we have learned how to use this feature — and now if you would like to change the design of the wheels, instead of doing so in two separate groups, you’ll need to do it only once inside the wheel symbol and the changes will be automatically applied to both wheels of the car. This is why we used a nested symbol to create the front and rear wheels. (Also, imagine if you’re working on a design of a vehicle that has many more wheels visible from the side, not only two! The time saved will multiply.)

    Back to the bigger picture — with the wheels complete, we are very close to the final design. Let’s take a look.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche 911 should look similar to this now. (Large preview)

    The Shadow Under the Wheels and the Car Body

    Pick the Oval tool and draw an ellipse under the wheels. Set Fills to #000000 with 80% Opacity, turn off Borders and apply a Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 5.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start making the shadow below the car. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the oval shape, adjust the width using Resize handles (make it smaller), and set Fills Opacity to 50%.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add one more oval shape. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape once again, adjust the width, and set Fills Opacity for this layer to 80%.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    And one more. (Large preview)

    Select the shadow ellipses and group them all into a shadows group. Move this group to the very bottom in the Layers panel list.

    17. Final Touches — The Racing Decals

    We are almost there! It’s time to add some racing decals to the car body and to the windshields.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Try to find some inspiration for the racing decals and stickers. (Large preview)

    The Porsche sticker

    Jump over to the Wikimedia Commons website and download the Porsche Wortmarke in SVG format. Bring it to our design, scale it up and position it like on the image below.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘Porsche Wortmarke’ added to the door. (Large preview)

    Create some rectangles using the Rectangle tool (R), set Fills to #0F0F13 and turn off Borders. Select all elements and group them into a porsche sticker group, then drag this group inside bodywork just below the door layer.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add some decoration around the ‘Porsche’ sticker letters. (Large preview)

    Shell sticker

    Next, download the vintage Shell logo in SVG format and open it in Sketch. Delete the white rectangle at the bottom inside the logo group, then copy and paste it into our design. Place it just above the porsche sticker in the Layers panel list and position it like on the image below.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the vintage Shell logo sticker. (Large preview)

    Dunlop sticker

    Download the Dunlop logo in SVG format, open it in Sketch and delete the yellow rectangle. Bring it to our design, scale it down a bit and place in close to the tail light. Make sure that the logo is inside the bodywork group, right above the Shell logo in the list of layers.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the Dunlop logo sticker. (Large preview)

    Marlboro sticker

    Get the SVG version of the Marlboro logo from Wikimedia Commons, paste into our design and scale it down. Use the resize handles to squeeze the red shape, then move the letters up, close to the red shape, and finally change Fills for the red shape to Linear Gradient with the following parameters:

    1. #E60202
    2. #BB0101
    3. #860000
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add and modify the Marlboro logo sticker. (Large preview)

    Please make sure that this logo is inside bodywork group and above “Dunlop” logo.

    Heuer Chronograph sticker

    Download and open in Sketch the Tag Heuer SVG logo. Delete everything except: the rectangle with the black border, the red rectangle, and the word “Heuer”.

    Select the rectangle with the black border, turn off Borders and change Fills to #CC2132. Next, select the inner red rectangle, turn on Borders, set Color to #FFFFFF, position to Outside and Width to 12px. Then use the Type tool (T) and type the word Chronograph — for the font use Helvetica Bold, with the size set to 72px.

    Note: If you don’t have Helvetica Bold installed, use a font similar in appearance (for example, Arial Bold), as this scale it would be difficult to spot the differences.

    Convert the text block into vector shapes, by right-clicking on it and selecting Convert to Outlines. Finally, select the bigger red rectangle, enter vector editing mode, select the top two points and push them down a bit. Select everything and place all the elements into a heuer chronograph logo group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the ‘heuer chronograph logo’ group. (Large preview)

    Bring this modified logo to our design, scale it down and place it onto the car body. Like before, make sure it’s inside bodywork, and it’s above the Marloboro logo.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Put the Heuer Chronograph sticker on the car, to the left of the driver’s door. (Large preview)

    Porsche Crest Badge

    Jump over to Wikimedia and download the Porsche logo in SVG format. We will need to modify and simplify it a bit because it’s too complex and we don’t need all of these details for the scale at which we’ll be using it in our illustration.

    Open the SVG logo file in Sketch, and first delete all the groups (amw-link and d-link) inside it. Then, select the shape on top, press Enter to switch to vector editing mode, select the word “Porsche” and the registered trademark symbol and delete them as well.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start modifying the Porsche logo. (Large preview)

    Next, click on the arrow in the front second crest compound shape to reveal its components, select the four paths and drag them outside the compound path, then change their color to #B12B28. Reveal the contents of the first compound crest shape, select all the paths that form the word “Porsche” and delete them.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche crest logo is now complete. (Large preview)

    Bring the modified Porsche crest logo to our design, scale it down, select the path that is the last one inside the Porsche logo group and add a Shadows effect — for the Color use #000000 at 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Put the Porsche crest logo in place on the car body. (Large preview)

    The Porsche crest badge should be placed inside the bodywork group just like the previous stickers that we added, above the heuer chronograph logo group.

    Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker

    Draw a rounded rectangle using the Rounded Rectangle tool (U), enter vector editing mode and add and move the vector points to make the shape like on the image below.

    Set Color to #9C010E and turn off Borders. Duplicate this shape, change Color to, i.e., #000000 so you can see better what you are doing, enter vector editing mode, select the top points and push them down a bit. Push by the same distance the right points to the left, and the left points to the right. Then push up the bottom points a bit more.

    Turn off Fills, turn on Borders with position set to Inside, Width set to 6px, and Color to #D7CB82. Convert Borders into a shape by going to LayerConvert to Outlines.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker. (Large preview)

    Draw a rectangle without Borders, set Color to #D7CB82, enter vector editing mode, add points in the middle of the top and bottom segment, and push them up and down a bit. Type the words: “SIEGER, WINNER, VAINQUEUR, 1968”. For the font use Helvetica Bold (or alternatively Arial Bold) with the #9C010E Color. Add the Porsche Wortmarke (we’ve used it earlier, remember?) to the bottom, and set Color to #D7CB82.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the shape, text, and the ‘Porsche Wortmarke’. (Large preview)

    Convert text to outlines, select the “1968” shape on the left side of the rectangle, zoom in and use Transform from the top toolbar to modify the shape:

    1. select the middle point on the right side and push it up a bit;
    2. select the bottom point on the right side and push it down the same amount of pixels.

    Perform a similar action for the “1968” on the right side of the rectangle, but this time use the middle and bottom points on the left side.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue adding the details to the Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker. (Large preview)

    Type “RALLYE” “MONTE” “-CARLO” as a three separate words, use the same font and change the Color to #D7CB82.

    Again, do a Convert to Outlines action and use Transform from the top toolbar to modify the shapes. I won’t go much into details here, but first modify the words “RALLYE” and “-CARLO” by using the method outlined above. Then, select all three shapes (the words), invoke the Transform tool, select the middle top point and push it up a bit to make the shapes elongated, and finally scale it up a bit by holding Alt + Shift on the keyboard while dragging the top right Resize handle. Use the image below as a reference.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker finished. (Large preview)

    Select and group all the elements we used to create this sticker into a rallye monte-carlo group, bring it into our design, and put it on the side windshield. In the Layers panel list this sticker should be inside the windshields group on top.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Put the Monte-Carlo sticker on the side windshield. (Large preview)

    Smashing Magazine Sticker

    This is the last sticker we are going to put on the car. Download the Smashing Magazine logo in SVG format, open it in Sketch and draw a red (#D33A2C) rectangle below the logo. Select both, create a group Smashing Magazine sticker, copy and paste into our design. Place it next to Rallye Monte Carlo sticker and scale it if needed.

    In the Layers panel list this should be inside the windshields group on top.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Smashing Magazine sticker added. (Large preview)

    I encourage you to add even more decals to the car body and the side windshield. Use the image below as a source for your inspiration.

    Note: These are just examples and recreating all the decals in vectors is outside of the scope of this tutorial. You can apply the principles learned from this tutorial and tweak the decals in vector format in a similar way.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Some side windshield decals examples. (Large preview)
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche 911 car body decals examples. (Large preview)

    Racing Number and Drivers Names

    One more important detail — since this car is a racing car we need to add a racing number to it.

    Download the Montserrat font family (if you don’t have it already), install only the “Montserrat Bold” font variant, and type the racing number. Set the Size to 180px and the Color to #000000. Then, Convert to Outlines to be able to apply a gradient to the racing number, and change Fills to a Linear Gradient:

    1. #22222B
    2. #3E3E42
    3. #656566
    4. #1B1B1E
    5. #0F0F13
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the racing number. (Large preview)

    Now add the drivers’ last names. I will add shamelessly my last name and the last name of one of my best friends, Ivan Minic. Use the Text tool to add the names, for the font use again “Montserrat Bold”, set Size and Line to 20px and Color to #2F2F2F.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the drivers’ last names. (Large preview)

    Select the names and the racing number, and move them inside the bodywork group, just above the door layer.

    Select and put all elements created so far into one group — Porsche 911. Our Porsche 911 is now officially finished!

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche 911 in all its glory! Great job! (Large preview)

    Finally, let’s add a background. Create a rectangle of the same size as the artboard, set the Fills to #F4F3F2, and push it below the Porsche 911 group.

    Final image 3/3: Add the background and complete the Porsche 911 tutorial illustration!
    Final image 3/3: Add the background and complete the Porsche 911 tutorial illustration! (Large preview)

    Conclusion

    We’ve put a lot of time and effort to reach the final destination and now you know too how to create all in vectors one of my favorite cars, the original Porsche 911 from 1968, in Sketch app. 🙂

    The tutorial probably wasn’t too easy, but the end results were well worth it, in my opinion.

    The next step, of course, is to design your own favorite car. Select a car (or another object you like) and be sure to find as many photos of it from different angles, so that you can carefully replicate all of the important details.

    More car illustrations for your inspiration — these are some of other racing cars that I’ve been creating in Sketch recently.
    More car illustrations for your inspiration — these are some of other racing cars that I’ve been creating in Sketch recently. (Large preview)

    As you can see, there are certain tools and features in Sketch that you can master to create similar objects — use them to speed up and simplify the whole process.

    I hope you will also remember how important is the proper naming of the layers/shapes (and groups), and stacking them in the right order so that even the most complex of illustrations are easy to organize and to work with.

    Finally, if you have any questions, please leave a comment below or ping me on Twitter (@colaja) and I will gladly help you.

    Further Reading

    1. Mastering the Bézier Curve in Sketch” (a tutorial by Peter Nowell)
    2. Designing A Realistic Chronograph Watch In Sketch” (a tutorial by Nikola Lazarević)
    3. Styling — Fills” (Sketch help page)
    4. Harnessing Vector Awesomeness in Sketch” (a tutorial by Peter Nowell)
    5. Vector Editing (and Vector Editing Mode)” (Sketch help page)
    6. Shapes” (Sketch help page)
    7. Copy styles in Sketch” (a tutorial by Drahomír Posteby-Mach)
    8. Getting the pixels right in Sketch” (a tutorial by Nav Pawera)
    9. Sketch Symbols, Everything you need to know, and more!” (a tutorial by Brian Laiche)
    10. Unleashing The Full Potential Of Symbols In Sketch” (an article by Javier Simon Cuello)
    11. How to Edit Shapes with Rotate Copies tool” (Sketch help page)
    12. Creating Nested Symbols” (Sketch help page)
    13. Nested Symbols in Sketch — I 😍 you” (a tutorial by Noam Zomerfeld)
    14. Unleashing The Full Potential Of Symbols In Sketch: Nested Symbols” (a tutorial by Javier Cuello)
    Smashing Editorial
    (mb, ra, yk, il)

    Source link

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    How To Create A Porsche 911 With Sketch (Part 3) — Smashing Magazine

    08/07/2020

    About The Author

    Visual and UI/UX Designer, the author of dozens Adobe Photoshop and Sketch tutorials. Espresso addict. Watch enthusiast.
    More about
    Nikola
    Lazarević

    This is the third and final part of the tutorial in which we’ll create the wheels (rims and tires), and add all the final touches (including the racing decals on the car’s body). This tutorial is geared more towards experienced illustrators, but if you’re new to Sketch, you should be able to profit from it, too. As you’ll see, all of the steps are explained in great detail. Still, you may want to read Part 1 and Part 2 first before we dive into the final details of the illustration.

    We continue our tutorial with the wheels of our Porsche 911 car, but before we proceed with the next steps, I’d like to shine the spotlight on the famous Fuchs wheels that were designed in the shape of a cloverleaf (or a wing). First, a bit of history:

    “The Fuchs wheel is a specialty wheel made for the first Porsche 911/911S model in the early 1960’s. Designed in conjunction with Otto Fuchs KG, Porsche modeler Heinrich Klie, and Ferdinand Porsche Jr., the Fuchs wheel was the first lightweight forged wheel to be fitted to a production automotive vehicle. They provided the rear-engined Porsche 911 sports car with a reduction in unsprung mass, through a strong and lightweight alloy wheel.”

    — Source: Wikipedia

    We’ll start with the design of the tires first.

    Tires

    Un-hide the wheel base in the Layers panel. Turn off Borders and set Fills to #2A2A2A. Then, duplicate this shape, change Fills to #000000, move it behind the base wheel (right-click on it and choose Move Backward) and push it 20px to the right.

    Tip: Holding Shift + will move the selection in 10-pixel increments.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Let’s start working on the tire design. (Large preview)

    Select the base wheel and add some guidelines to make alignment of all elements easier. To do this, show the Sketch rulers (press Ctrl + R). Then, add a vertical guideline at the center of the base wheel with a click on the upper ruler, and do the same for the horizontal guide on the left ruler.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add a vertical and a horizontal guideline at the center of the ‘base wheel’. (Large preview)

    Temporarily turn off the guidelines by pressing Ctrl + R on the keyboard. Create a tiny rectangle with a width of 2px and a height of 8px, with the Fills set to #000000 and the Borders turned off. This rectangle will serve as the base unit for creating the treads (a.k.a. the tread pattern). Center the rectangle to the base wheel horizontally.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the base unit for the treads. (Large preview)

    Zoom in close enough (here, I zoomed in to 3200%), choose Transform from the top toolbar, select the top middle point and push it 2px to the right, then select the middle bottom point and push it 2px to the left to make it look slanted.

    Note: If you don’t see the Transform tool in the top toolbar, you can add it there via ViewCustomize Toolbar… or you can use the keyboard shortcut Cmd + Shift + T.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Transform the tread base unit and make it look slanted. (Large preview)

    Turn back on the guidelines (Ctrl + R) and make sure this rectangle is selected. Put the rectangle into a group by pressing Cmd + G on the keyboard. Give this group the name treads.

    We will use the Rotate Copies tool to create the treads around the wheel base. Like Create Symbol, Rotate Copies can be one of those features that will save you a lot of time and effort!

    Note: If you are using Sketch version 67.0 or 67.1, you may experience a bug with Rotate Copies operation. If this happens, you will need to create the treads around the wheel base manually; or (better), you should update to v. 67.2 (or later) where this issue has been resolved.

    Make sure the rectangle inside the group treads is selected, then go to LayerPath → select Rotate Copies. A dialog box that will open will let you define how many additional copies of the selected element to make. Enter 71 so that in total we will have 72 rectangles around the wheel base that will be the treads. Press Rotate in the dialog box. After you have entered this value in the dialog, you will be presented with all of the rectangles and a circular indicator in the middle.

    Tip: Performing this step in Sketch is very CPU and memory intensive! If you are working on a modern machine, probably you will not experience any issues; but if your Mac is a bit older, then your mileage may vary. In general, when working with a large number of copies, try to first turn off Borders to avoid getting stuck and to achieve the result of the operation faster.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Use the Rotate Copies feature to create the treads. (Large preview)

    Now, move this circular indicator down until it is located precisely at the intersection of the guides — and voilà! we have 72 rectangles evenly placed around the wheel base. When you’re done, press Esc or Enter. Note that if you miss putting the circular indicator (the center of rotation) right at the intersection of the guides, the rectangles won’t be distributed perfectly around the wheel base so be careful.

    Note: The Rotate Copies tool doesn’t create a compound shape in the newer versions of Sketch (version 52 or later) and instead creates (and rotates) separate copies of the shape. By putting the first shape into a group we’ve secured that all created and rotated shapes are inside this group named treads.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘treads’ group created. (Large preview)

    Select the base wheel again, duplicate, position it above treads in the Layers panel list, and scale it down by 14px. Change Color to #3F3F3F and turn on Borders — set Color to #000000, Position to Inside and Width to 1px.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the tire details. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this circle, turn off Fills and set the Border Width to 20px. We only want to show 24 of the Borders14 on the top left side and 14 on the bottom right side. To do that, type in the Dash field r*π*0.25 where r is diameter of the circle (254px in my case), 0.25 is 25% (or 14) of the border, and π is 3.14.

    So in this case enter the following formula in the Dash field: 254*3.14*0.25, and press Enter (or Tab) on the keyboard.

    Note: If you enter a number in the Dash field and press Tab on the keyboard, Sketch will automatically fill the Gap field with the same number. Same thing will happen if you press Enter.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Let’s show only 2/4 of the borders. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the circle, scale it down a bit, set the Borders Width to 12px and apply an Angular Gradient with the following properties:

    1. #9D9D9D
    2. #000000
    3. #000000
    4. #595959
    5. #000000
    6. #000000
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Set an Angular Gradient on the circle shape. (Large preview)

    Then, apply a Gaussian Blur effect with an Amount of 4.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply a Gaussian Blur. (Large preview)

    Once again, duplicate the circle, turn off Gaussian Blur and scale it down. Turn on Fills, make sure it is still #3F3F3F, set the Borders to Outside position and Width to 1px. Change Color to Linear Gradient and use #000000 for the first color stop and #444444 for the last color stop.

    Add Inner Shadows — for the Color use #FFFFFF at 20% Alpha and set Blur to 2; then apply Shadows — for the Color use #000000 at 90% Alpha and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Inner Shadows effect added. (Large preview)

    Now it’s the perfect time to add a bit of a texture! Select and copy the wheel base shape, paste it on top, then Move Backward once so it sits just beneath the circle we’ve just created. Set Fills to Pattern Fill, Type to Fill Image and choose the bottom right pattern. Set Opacity for this shape to 10%.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Now add a bit of texture. (Large preview)

    Select the circle on top, duplicate, turn off Borders, Inner Shadows and Shadows. Set Fills to #000000 and Opacity to 100% and scale down this circle by 32px. Apply a Gaussian Blur with the Amount of 4.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    (Large preview)

    Push it down 3px, then duplicate and move the duplicate 6px up.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Duplicate then move the duplicate up. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the last circle, turn off the Gaussian Blur, push it down by 3px and scale it down by 4px. Add a Shadows effect with the Color set to #FFFFFF at 90% Alpha and Blur set to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Duplicate the circle again, push and scale it down a bit. Almost there! (Large preview)

    Now, duplicate this circle, turn off Shadows and scale it down a bit (by 2px). Turn on Borders, set position to Inside, Width to 1px and apply a Linear Gradient:

    1. #CCCCCC
    2. #A6A6A6
    3. #A4A4A4
    4. #CFCFCF
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply a Linear Gradient. (Large preview)

    Change Fills to Angular Gradient with the following properties (attention! it’s a long list of color stops):

    1. #D3D3D3
    2. #ACACAC
    3. #D8D8D8
    4. #B4B4B4
    5. #8F8F8F
    6. #B2B2B2
    7. #C4C4C4
    8. #A4A4A4
    9. #C3C3C3
    10. #ADADAD
    11. #ADADAD
    12. #949494
    13. #BBBBBB
    14. #929292
    15. #C2C2C2
    16. #B4B4B4
    17. #8F8F8F
    18. #B4B4B4
    19. #D8D8D8
    20. #A9A9A9
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply an Angular Gradient. (Large preview)

    Then, add an Inner Shadows effect — set Color to #000000 at 50% Alpha and set Blur and Spread to 2.

    Duplicate, scale it down by 14px, change Fills to #434343 Solid Color, Borders position to Outside, and Inner Shadows properties to: Color #000000 at 90% Alpha, Blur and Spread set to 24.

    Then add two Shadows effects:

    • first — Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha; Y: 2; Blur: 5
    • second — Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha; Blur: 2
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add two Shadows effects. (Large preview)

    Again, duplicate the shape, scale it down by 8px, turn off Fills, Shadows and Inner Shadow, and set Borders Color to #414141.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Duplicate and scale down the circle. (Large preview)

    Switch to the Oval tool (O), and draw a circle from the intersection of the guides. Turn off Fills, set Borders Color to #575757, position to Inside and Width to 1px.

    Duplicate, scale it down a bit and make sure the border Width is 1px. Repeat this seven more times, so at the end you have nine concentric circles. Make sure that all Borders Width are 1px. Use the image below as reference.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The nine concentric circles. (Large preview)

    Select all the concentric circles and put them into a group.

    Rims

    We will start working on the rim design next.

    Draw a circle from the intersection of the guides, then draw a rectangle on top and center it horizontally to the circle.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the rim design. (Large preview)

    Select this rectangle, double-click on it to switch to vector editing mode and move the points until you have something like on the image below. Select the top two points and set the Radius to 20.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Set the radius of the top two points. (Large preview)

    We will use Rotate Copies again to distribute this shape around the circle. Select both — circle and the modified rectangle — turn off Borders and place them into a group. Now select the modified rectangle, go to LayerPath, select Rotate Copies, enter 4 in the dialog box (so we’ll have a total of five shapes), click Rotate, and align the circular indicator to the intersection of the guides. When done, press Esc or Enter.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Use Rotate Copies to distribute this shape around the circle. We’re getting closer to the cloverleaf design! (Large preview)

    Select all shapes inside the group and apply a Subtract operation from the top toolbar. Add Inner Shadows effect — for the Color use #FFFFF at 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2. Then apply Shadows with Color set to #000000 at 70% Alpha and both Blur and Spread set to 2. Finally, change Fills to #000000.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Subtract, add Inner Shadows and Shadows, change Fills to black. (Large preview)

    Draw a circle from the intersection of the guides but make it a bit bigger than the shape below, then draw a shape and center it horizontally to the circle. Select both, turn off Borders and put them into a group. Select the shape and perform a Rotate Copies operation. Enter 4 in the dialog box (so again, we’ll have a total of five shapes), click Rotate, and align the circular indicator to the intersection of the guides. When ready, press Esc or Enter.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Rotate Copies feature is useful again. (Large preview)

    Select all shapes inside the group and apply a Subtract operation from the top toolbar. Add an Inner Shadows effect — for the Color use #FFFFF at 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2. Change Fills to #131313.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Subtract, then add Inner Shadows. (Large preview)

    Now, we will create one rim bolt head.

    Zoom in close enough (I zoomed in to 400%) and draw a circle. Set Fills to #4F4F4F, change Borders position to Outside, Width to 1px and use #8F8F8F for the Color. Add one more border but this time use #000000 for the Color, set position to Center and make sure the Width is 1px.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create a bolt head — first steps. (Large preview)

    Draw a rectangle in the middle of the circle, turn off Borders, enter vector editing mode, hold Shift and click on the right segment to add a point in the middle, then do the same for the left segment. Push those points 2px to the left and to the right to create a hexagonal shape. Apply a Linear Gradient for the Fills — use #AEAEAE for the top and #727272 for the bottom color stop. Add Inner Shadows using #000000 at 50% Alpha for the Color and set Blur to 2, and apply Shadows using #000000 at 90% Alpha for the Color and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the bolt head. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the hexagonal shape, enter vector editing mode, select all the point on the left side and push them 1px to the right, then select all top points and push them 1px down, push the bottom points 1px up and the right points 1px left. Clear the Shadows and modify the Linear Gradient:

    1. #8F8F8F
    2. #979797
    3. #A4A4A4
    4. #636363
    5. #4A4A4A

    Now apply an Inner Shadows effect. For the Color use #000000 with 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The bolt head details, now with the gradient applied. (Large preview)

    Select all the shapes that we used to create the bolt head and group them into a bolt head group. We can Create Symbol out of the bolt head group and we can use it as many time as we need it.

    To create the new Symbol, select the bolt head group, right-click on it, and choose Create Symbol from the menu. The dialog box Create New Symbol will appear, give a name to the symbol (bolt head) and click OK.

    Now we need to distribute the bolt head symbols around the circle. Duplicate the symbol, choose Rotate from the top toolbar, drag the crosshair marker to the the intersection of the guides, and rotate it 72 degrees. Continue duplicating and rotating the symbol in 72-degree increments, without letting the selection go.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Distribute the ‘bolt head’ symbols around the circle. (Large preview)

    Now select each symbol instance and adjust the angle of rotation to 0 degrees.

    Tip: I’m suggesting to initially adjust the angle to 0 degrees so that you can better see the process and how the bolts will look like when placed on the rim. Once the rim bolts are in place, though, my recommendation is to experiment some more and try setting a different angle of rotation for each bolt symbol. This will make the wheels look more realistic — after all, in real life it’s much more likely to see rim bolts at random angles than aligned perfectly to 0 degrees!

    Finally, select all the instances of the bolt head symbol, place them into a group bolts and perform a Move Backward once.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The group ‘bolts’ is now finished. (Large preview)

    Draw a shape, set Border Color to #CFCFCF, set Width to 1px and position to Inside, and use a Linear Gradient for the Fills:

    1. #5F5F5F
    2. #B5B5B5
    3. #CBCBCB

    Then add Inner Shadows effect using #000000 at 30% Alpha, and Blur set to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the rim details. (Large preview)

    Grab the Vector tool (V) and draw two shapes that we will use for the highlights. Use a Linear Gradient for the Fills — use for the top color stop #F3F3F3 at 100% Alpha and the same color for the bottom but at 0% Alpha. Use the same gradient settings for both shapes and also apply a Gaussian Blur with the Amount of 1 to both shapes.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the highlights. (Large preview)

    Select all shapes that we’ve just created, group them and distribute them evenly around the rim. Use the same method that we used for the bolt heads.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Distribute the shapes around the rim. (Large preview)

    Select the Oval tool (O) and draw a circle from the intersection of the guides. Turn off Borders and use Linear Gradient with colors set to #D8D8D8 for the top stop and #848484 for the bottom stop. Use Inner Shadows and Shadows to make it look slightly raised.

    Let’s add a light Inner Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #FFFFFF at 80% Alpha
    • Blur: 2

    Then, add a dark Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha
    • Blur: 2

    Finally, apply a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000 at 50% Alpha
    • Blur: 2
    • Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the circle in the middle and apply all the styles. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this circle, scale it down a bit, turn off Inner Shadows and Shadows, turn on Borders and add the first border:

    • Color: #B5B5B5;
    • Position: Outside
    • Width: 1px

    Then add a second one on the top:

    • Color: #656565
    • Position: Center
    • Width: 1px
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Work on the details in the center of the rim. (Large preview)

    Let’s finish the wheel design by adding to the rim the Porsche emblem.

    Note: Recreating the original Porsche logo for the rims, all in vectors, is outside of the scope of this tutorial. There are a few options — you can create it yourself by following the same basic principles outlined on these pages; you can download the logo from Wikipedia in SVG format and then try to modify it; or you can download a copy of the logo in vector lines from my website (porsche-line-logo-f.svg). This copy of the Porsche logo was created by me from scratch, all in vectors, and this is the variant that I recommend you to use.

    After downloading the logo file (porsche-line-logo-f.svg) bring it into our design.

    Switch to the Scale tool in the top toolbar, and in the dialog box enter 20px in the height field, to adjust the size of the logo. Align the logo horizontally with the circle below.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the Porsche logo to the center of the rim. (Large preview)
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche emblem in the center of the rim (detail close-up). (Large preview)

    Completing the wheels — two possible workflows

    Since a copy of the front wheel (once it’s complete) will be used more than once in our illustration, we have two options now:

    • A. We can complete the front wheel design, duplicate the wheel, make a couple of tweaks, and use the duplicate as the rear wheel. This is the easiest variant.
    • B. Or, for learning purposes, we can use a workflow involving the use of nested symbols. This is the more interesting option which I’ll explore in more detail in a bit. Buckle up!

    A. Workflow #1: duplicate the wheel and adjust the copy

    Pick up the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape on top of the wheel. Turn off Borders and Fill the shape with black #000000 color. Apply Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 10. This way we will recreate the shadow from the car body over the wheel — just an extra bit of realism added.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the shadow from the car body over the wheel. (Large preview)

    Select the wheel group, wheel base copy layer and the shadow shape layer and group these into a front wheel group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the ‘front wheel’ group. (Large preview)

    Now that the wheel is ready, duplicate the front wheel group, rename the group in the Layers panel list to rear wheel and drag it to the right to its place.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    [Move the ‘rear wheel’ group to its place. (Large preview)

    Select the wheel group inside and push it 20px to the right, then select the wheel base copy layer and push it 20px to the left. The rear wheel is ready.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Move the ‘wheel’ group to the right, and the ‘wheel base copy’ layer to the left. The ‘rear wheel’ group is ready. (Large preview)

    B. Workflow #2: use nested symbols

    Pick up the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape on top of the wheel. Turn off Borders and Fill the shape with black #000000 color. Apply Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 10. This way we will recreate the shadow from the car body over the wheel — just an extra bit of realism added.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the shadow from the car body over the wheel. (Large preview)

    The wheel is finished. Now we’ll use a symbol and a nested symbol to create the front and rear wheels.

    Select the wheel group, wheel base copy layer and the shadow shape layer and group these into a front wheel group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the ‘front wheel’ group. (Large preview)

    Here we’re coming to the more interesting bits! Select the wheel group and create a wheel symbol, then select the front wheel and create a front wheel symbol. The front wheel symbol is now a nested symbol!

    Tip: You can learn more about nested symbols in the Sketch help pages dedicated to this topic, and in the following article written by Noam Zomerfeld.

    Nested symbols are regular symbols that are made from other symbols that already exist in your Sketch file. In this case, the front wheel symbol is made from the wheel symbol, so the wheel symbol is nested inside the front wheel symbol.

    What could be better than one symbol? Perhaps a symbol with another one inside it — enter Nested Symbols! This feature gives you a lot of possibilities when combining symbols together. Nesting symbols can be especially useful when you need to create variations of one symbol.
    — Javier-Simon Cuello, “Unleashing The Full Potential Of Symbols In Sketch

    Now, go to the Symbols page in Sketch, duplicate the front wheel symbol, select the wheel group and push it 20px to the right, then select the wheel base copy and push it 20px to the left. At the end, rename this symbol to rear wheel.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Front and rear wheel symbols. (Large preview)

    Go back to our design, select and duplicate the front wheel symbol, then using the Inspector panel change the symbol to rear wheel, rename the symbol in the Layers panel list to rear wheel and drag it to the right. Done!

    So far it may seem that we’ve spent more time playing with nested symbols, compared to the other workflow. That’s true. But also we have learned how to use this feature — and now if you would like to change the design of the wheels, instead of doing so in two separate groups, you’ll need to do it only once inside the wheel symbol and the changes will be automatically applied to both wheels of the car. This is why we used a nested symbol to create the front and rear wheels. (Also, imagine if you’re working on a design of a vehicle that has many more wheels visible from the side, not only two! The time saved will multiply.)

    Back to the bigger picture — with the wheels complete, we are very close to the final design. Let’s take a look.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche 911 should look similar to this now. (Large preview)

    The Shadow Under the Wheels and the Car Body

    Pick the Oval tool and draw an ellipse under the wheels. Set Fills to #000000 with 80% Opacity, turn off Borders and apply a Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 5.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start making the shadow below the car. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the oval shape, adjust the width using Resize handles (make it smaller), and set Fills Opacity to 50%.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add one more oval shape. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape once again, adjust the width, and set Fills Opacity for this layer to 80%.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    And one more. (Large preview)

    Select the shadow ellipses and group them all into a shadows group. Move this group to the very bottom in the Layers panel list.

    17. Final Touches — The Racing Decals

    We are almost there! It’s time to add some racing decals to the car body and to the windshields.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Try to find some inspiration for the racing decals and stickers. (Large preview)

    The Porsche sticker

    Jump over to the Wikimedia Commons website and download the Porsche Wortmarke in SVG format. Bring it to our design, scale it up and position it like on the image below.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘Porsche Wortmarke’ added to the door. (Large preview)

    Create some rectangles using the Rectangle tool (R), set Fills to #0F0F13 and turn off Borders. Select all elements and group them into a porsche sticker group, then drag this group inside bodywork just below the door layer.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add some decoration around the ‘Porsche’ sticker letters. (Large preview)

    Shell sticker

    Next, download the vintage Shell logo in SVG format and open it in Sketch. Delete the white rectangle at the bottom inside the logo group, then copy and paste it into our design. Place it just above the porsche sticker in the Layers panel list and position it like on the image below.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the vintage Shell logo sticker. (Large preview)

    Dunlop sticker

    Download the Dunlop logo in SVG format, open it in Sketch and delete the yellow rectangle. Bring it to our design, scale it down a bit and place in close to the tail light. Make sure that the logo is inside the bodywork group, right above the Shell logo in the list of layers.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the Dunlop logo sticker. (Large preview)

    Marlboro sticker

    Get the SVG version of the Marlboro logo from Wikimedia Commons, paste into our design and scale it down. Use the resize handles to squeeze the red shape, then move the letters up, close to the red shape, and finally change Fills for the red shape to Linear Gradient with the following parameters:

    1. #E60202
    2. #BB0101
    3. #860000
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add and modify the Marlboro logo sticker. (Large preview)

    Please make sure that this logo is inside bodywork group and above “Dunlop” logo.

    Heuer Chronograph sticker

    Download and open in Sketch the Tag Heuer SVG logo. Delete everything except: the rectangle with the black border, the red rectangle, and the word “Heuer”.

    Select the rectangle with the black border, turn off Borders and change Fills to #CC2132. Next, select the inner red rectangle, turn on Borders, set Color to #FFFFFF, position to Outside and Width to 12px. Then use the Type tool (T) and type the word Chronograph — for the font use Helvetica Bold, with the size set to 72px.

    Note: If you don’t have Helvetica Bold installed, use a font similar in appearance (for example, Arial Bold), as this scale it would be difficult to spot the differences.

    Convert the text block into vector shapes, by right-clicking on it and selecting Convert to Outlines. Finally, select the bigger red rectangle, enter vector editing mode, select the top two points and push them down a bit. Select everything and place all the elements into a heuer chronograph logo group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the ‘heuer chronograph logo’ group. (Large preview)

    Bring this modified logo to our design, scale it down and place it onto the car body. Like before, make sure it’s inside bodywork, and it’s above the Marloboro logo.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Put the Heuer Chronograph sticker on the car, to the left of the driver’s door. (Large preview)

    Porsche Crest Badge

    Jump over to Wikimedia and download the Porsche logo in SVG format. We will need to modify and simplify it a bit because it’s too complex and we don’t need all of these details for the scale at which we’ll be using it in our illustration.

    Open the SVG logo file in Sketch, and first delete all the groups (amw-link and d-link) inside it. Then, select the shape on top, press Enter to switch to vector editing mode, select the word “Porsche” and the registered trademark symbol and delete them as well.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start modifying the Porsche logo. (Large preview)

    Next, click on the arrow in the front second crest compound shape to reveal its components, select the four paths and drag them outside the compound path, then change their color to #B12B28. Reveal the contents of the first compound crest shape, select all the paths that form the word “Porsche” and delete them.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche crest logo is now complete. (Large preview)

    Bring the modified Porsche crest logo to our design, scale it down, select the path that is the last one inside the Porsche logo group and add a Shadows effect — for the Color use #000000 at 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Put the Porsche crest logo in place on the car body. (Large preview)

    The Porsche crest badge should be placed inside the bodywork group just like the previous stickers that we added, above the heuer chronograph logo group.

    Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker

    Draw a rounded rectangle using the Rounded Rectangle tool (U), enter vector editing mode and add and move the vector points to make the shape like on the image below.

    Set Color to #9C010E and turn off Borders. Duplicate this shape, change Color to, i.e., #000000 so you can see better what you are doing, enter vector editing mode, select the top points and push them down a bit. Push by the same distance the right points to the left, and the left points to the right. Then push up the bottom points a bit more.

    Turn off Fills, turn on Borders with position set to Inside, Width set to 6px, and Color to #D7CB82. Convert Borders into a shape by going to LayerConvert to Outlines.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker. (Large preview)

    Draw a rectangle without Borders, set Color to #D7CB82, enter vector editing mode, add points in the middle of the top and bottom segment, and push them up and down a bit. Type the words: “SIEGER, WINNER, VAINQUEUR, 1968”. For the font use Helvetica Bold (or alternatively Arial Bold) with the #9C010E Color. Add the Porsche Wortmarke (we’ve used it earlier, remember?) to the bottom, and set Color to #D7CB82.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the shape, text, and the ‘Porsche Wortmarke’. (Large preview)

    Convert text to outlines, select the “1968” shape on the left side of the rectangle, zoom in and use Transform from the top toolbar to modify the shape:

    1. select the middle point on the right side and push it up a bit;
    2. select the bottom point on the right side and push it down the same amount of pixels.

    Perform a similar action for the “1968” on the right side of the rectangle, but this time use the middle and bottom points on the left side.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue adding the details to the Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker. (Large preview)

    Type “RALLYE” “MONTE” “-CARLO” as a three separate words, use the same font and change the Color to #D7CB82.

    Again, do a Convert to Outlines action and use Transform from the top toolbar to modify the shapes. I won’t go much into details here, but first modify the words “RALLYE” and “-CARLO” by using the method outlined above. Then, select all three shapes (the words), invoke the Transform tool, select the middle top point and push it up a bit to make the shapes elongated, and finally scale it up a bit by holding Alt + Shift on the keyboard while dragging the top right Resize handle. Use the image below as a reference.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Rallye Monte-Carlo sticker finished. (Large preview)

    Select and group all the elements we used to create this sticker into a rallye monte-carlo group, bring it into our design, and put it on the side windshield. In the Layers panel list this sticker should be inside the windshields group on top.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Put the Monte-Carlo sticker on the side windshield. (Large preview)

    Smashing Magazine Sticker

    This is the last sticker we are going to put on the car. Download the Smashing Magazine logo in SVG format, open it in Sketch and draw a red (#D33A2C) rectangle below the logo. Select both, create a group Smashing Magazine sticker, copy and paste into our design. Place it next to Rallye Monte Carlo sticker and scale it if needed.

    In the Layers panel list this should be inside the windshields group on top.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Smashing Magazine sticker added. (Large preview)

    I encourage you to add even more decals to the car body and the side windshield. Use the image below as a source for your inspiration.

    Note: These are just examples and recreating all the decals in vectors is outside of the scope of this tutorial. You can apply the principles learned from this tutorial and tweak the decals in vector format in a similar way.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Some side windshield decals examples. (Large preview)
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche 911 car body decals examples. (Large preview)

    Racing Number and Drivers Names

    One more important detail — since this car is a racing car we need to add a racing number to it.

    Download the Montserrat font family (if you don’t have it already), install only the “Montserrat Bold” font variant, and type the racing number. Set the Size to 180px and the Color to #000000. Then, Convert to Outlines to be able to apply a gradient to the racing number, and change Fills to a Linear Gradient:

    1. #22222B
    2. #3E3E42
    3. #656566
    4. #1B1B1E
    5. #0F0F13
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the racing number. (Large preview)

    Now add the drivers’ last names. I will add shamelessly my last name and the last name of one of my best friends, Ivan Minic. Use the Text tool to add the names, for the font use again “Montserrat Bold”, set Size and Line to 20px and Color to #2F2F2F.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add the drivers’ last names. (Large preview)

    Select the names and the racing number, and move them inside the bodywork group, just above the door layer.

    Select and put all elements created so far into one group — Porsche 911. Our Porsche 911 is now officially finished!

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The Porsche 911 in all its glory! Great job! (Large preview)

    Finally, let’s add a background. Create a rectangle of the same size as the artboard, set the Fills to #F4F3F2, and push it below the Porsche 911 group.

    Final image 3/3: Add the background and complete the Porsche 911 tutorial illustration!
    Final image 3/3: Add the background and complete the Porsche 911 tutorial illustration! (Large preview)

    Conclusion

    We’ve put a lot of time and effort to reach the final destination and now you know too how to create all in vectors one of my favorite cars, the original Porsche 911 from 1968, in Sketch app. 🙂

    The tutorial probably wasn’t too easy, but the end results were well worth it, in my opinion.

    The next step, of course, is to design your own favorite car. Select a car (or another object you like) and be sure to find as many photos of it from different angles, so that you can carefully replicate all of the important details.

    More car illustrations for your inspiration — these are some of other racing cars that I’ve been creating in Sketch recently.
    More car illustrations for your inspiration — these are some of other racing cars that I’ve been creating in Sketch recently. (Large preview)

    As you can see, there are certain tools and features in Sketch that you can master to create similar objects — use them to speed up and simplify the whole process.

    I hope you will also remember how important is the proper naming of the layers/shapes (and groups), and stacking them in the right order so that even the most complex of illustrations are easy to organize and to work with.

    Finally, if you have any questions, please leave a comment below or ping me on Twitter (@colaja) and I will gladly help you.

    Further Reading

    1. Mastering the Bézier Curve in Sketch” (a tutorial by Peter Nowell)
    2. Designing A Realistic Chronograph Watch In Sketch” (a tutorial by Nikola Lazarević)
    3. Styling — Fills” (Sketch help page)
    4. Harnessing Vector Awesomeness in Sketch” (a tutorial by Peter Nowell)
    5. Vector Editing (and Vector Editing Mode)” (Sketch help page)
    6. Shapes” (Sketch help page)
    7. Copy styles in Sketch” (a tutorial by Drahomír Posteby-Mach)
    8. Getting the pixels right in Sketch” (a tutorial by Nav Pawera)
    9. Sketch Symbols, Everything you need to know, and more!” (a tutorial by Brian Laiche)
    10. Unleashing The Full Potential Of Symbols In Sketch” (an article by Javier Simon Cuello)
    11. How to Edit Shapes with Rotate Copies tool” (Sketch help page)
    12. Creating Nested Symbols” (Sketch help page)
    13. Nested Symbols in Sketch — I 😍 you” (a tutorial by Noam Zomerfeld)
    14. Unleashing The Full Potential Of Symbols In Sketch: Nested Symbols” (a tutorial by Javier Cuello)
    Smashing Editorial
    (mb, ra, yk, il)

    Source link

    web design

    How To Create A Porsche 911 With Sketch (Part 2) — Smashing Magazine

    07/31/2020

    About The Author

    Visual and UI/UX Designer, the author of dozens Adobe Photoshop and Sketch tutorials. Espresso addict. Watch enthusiast.
    More about
    Nikola
    Lazarević

    In Part 1 of this tutorial, Nikola Lazarević explained how you can create and tweak the body of a car in Sketch including the front signal lights and the tail lights. In this part, he continues with the design of the car windows, bumpers, headlights, the interior, and a few other elements.

    Are you ready to push Sketch to its limits once again? As noted in the previous part, this tutorial is geared more towards experienced illustrators, but if you’re new to Sketch then you should also be able to profit from it since all of the steps are explained in great detail.

    After finished off the tail lights, let’s continue with the design of the car windows.

    7. Rubber Seals Around The Windows

    In this step, we will add rubber seals around the windows. Start first with the side window. Switch to the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape around the the side window, like on the image below.

    Note: Before you continue, remember that we’re still drawing inside the bodywork group!

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw a rubber seal shape around the side window. (Large preview)

    Turn off Borders and set Fills to #000000, and add a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 90%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 3; Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rubber seal around the side window is now complete. (Large preview)

    Next, let’s add a rubber seal around the front windshield. Draw a shape around the front window, turn off Borders, set Color to #000000 and apply Shadows:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 90%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 3; Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front windshield’s rubber seal. (Large preview)

    Now, let’s add a trim on top of the rubber seal. To do that, duplicate the seal shape, turn off Fills and Shadows, turn on Borders, set Color to #E0E0E0, border position to Inside and Width to 1.5px. Double-click on the shape to enter vector editing mode and then select and move the points until you have something like on the image below. Be patient, it may require some time!

    Note: While usually I’d suggest avoiding half-pixels in your vector illustrations as much as possible, in some cases these might actually work well. After quite some trial and error while working on the trim on top of the windshield’s rubber seal, I’ve discovered that 1.5px gives the best visual results.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the trim. (Large preview)

    Tip: Change point types as needed while working on this shape.

    At the end of this step, we need also to add a seal around the rear windshield. Draw a shape around it, turn off Border, set Fills to #000000 and apply Shadows with the same parameters like we did for the previous seals.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rear windshield’s rubber seal. (Large preview)

    8. Door Handle

    Pick up the Oval tool (O) and draw an ellipse. Set Border color to #949494, position to Center with a Width of 1px. For the Fills use a Linear Gradient:

    1. #787878
    2. #C9C9C9
    3. #A5A5A5

    And add Inner Shadows:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw an ellipse for the door handle. (Large preview)

    Create a rectangle on the left and on the right side of the ellipse by using the Rectangle tool (R). Make the outer corners rounded by using the Radius property in the Inspector panel. Turn off Borders and set Fills to #333333.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the rectangles on the left and on the right side of the door ellipse. (Large preview)

    We will now use Inner Shadows and Shadows to make it look slightly raised.

    Select left side rectangle and add a light Inner Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 20%
    • X: 2; Y: -2; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    Then, apply a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply the effects to the left side rectangle. (Large preview)

    Next, select right side rectangle and apply Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 20%
    • X:2; Y: -2; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    Apply a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply the effects to the right side rectangle. Still not there but we’re getting closer! (Large preview)

    Let’s move on to handle. We will build our handle out of three shapes.

    First, create two rectangles by using the Rectangle tool (R) and make the sides rounded with a help of the Radius property set from the Inspector panel.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the handle details. (Large preview)

    Then, use the Vector tool (V) to draw a shape between the rectangles.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    With the Vector tool, draw a shape between these two rectangles. (Large preview)

    Now select the rectangles and the shape we have just created and perform a Union operation (from the top Sketch toolbar) to create one object. Name this object handleshape. Change the Color to #E3E3E3 and add an Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: -2; Blur: 5; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the object and apply the styles. (Large preview)

    Let’s add a subtle shadow to the handle. Zoom in and draw a shape like on the image below. Don’t worry if the bottom part goes out of handle area, we will fix this later with a masking operation. Turn off Borders and set Fills to #3D3D3D.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add a shadow to the door handle. (Large preview)

    Let’s fit the shadow inside the handle. Select the handle and the shadow shape, and click on Mask in the top toolbar. The result of this masking operation will automatically be placed in a new group in the Layers panel list. Change the name of this group to handle.

    Tip: *Don’t forget to check if Sketch turned off Inner Shadows for the masking layer. If that’s the case, just turn them back on.*

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘handle’ group is complete. (Large preview)

    Now, let’s add a key lock to the door handle.

    Draw a small circle. Add a Center Border with a Width of 1px and the Color set to #000000. Change Fills to Linear Gradient, and adjust the gradient with the following parameters:

    1. #888888
    2. #DFDFDF
    3. #CACACA

    Apply a Shadow effect with the Color set to #000000 at 90% alpha, Blur to 3, the X and Y positions and Spread set to 0.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create a key lock. (Large preview)

    Create a keyhole by drawing a tiny black rectangle without Borders in the middle of the circle. Group both shapes (circle and rectangle) into a key-lock group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the keyhole. (Large preview)

    The only thing left to do is to create the handle’s shadow which should be placed inside the ellipse (see the next screenshot). Find the handleshape object in the Layers panel list, click on the caret in front of the layer name to reveal its content (the shapes), select the bridge between the rectangles and press Cmd + C to copy this shape.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Select the bridge between the rectangles then copy it. (Large preview)

    Select the ellipse that is below the handle, paste (Cmd + V) over the shape that we’ve just copied, set the Color to #505050, push it down 2px and apply a Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 2. Then select this shape along with the ellipse and group them together (Cmd + G).

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Paste, move, apply the styles, then group. (Large preview)

    Inside this group, select the ellipse, right-click on it and choose Mask from the menu, to make sure that the shadow will stay inside the ellipse.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The handle shadow is now complete. (Large preview)

    Select all the elements that we created in this step and place them into a group named door handle.

    9. Bumpers

    Let’s create the front bumper first. Switch to the Vector tool (V) and draw the shape. Change the Fills Opacity to 0%, make sure that Borders are turned off and apply light and dark Inner Shadows effect.

    First add a light Inner Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0

    Then, add a dark Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: -2; Y: -5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper. (Large preview)

    Do the same for the rear bumper, but instead use these parameters for the dark Inner Shadow effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 3; Y: -5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rear bumper. (Large preview)

    Name these shapes front bumper and rear bumper.

    Let’s move on to the next element on the case. Now we will create the decoration on the front bumper. Grab the Rounded Rectangle tool (U) and draw a rounded rectangle (174px by 14px). Make sure it is outside of the bodywork group and give it the name bumper deco base.

    Turn off Borders and then click on Fills, choose Linear Gradient, and add a gradient. Use #E4E4E4 with 100% alpha for the first color stop and #858585 with alpha 100% for the last color stop. Now, add another point with a click on the gradient axis in the color dialog, and move it to the exact middle by pressing 5 on the keyboard. Give it 100% alpha, and make sure its color is #E4E4E4. Add another one to the right, and also move it to the center. Change the color of this stop to #858585 with 100% alpha.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper deco element. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the shape (Cmd + D), change the name to front bumper deco shadow and using the Layers panel list, drag it inside the bodywork group just above the front bumper shape, and add two Shadows effects.

    Add the first Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 80%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 2

    Then, add the second Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 80%
    • X: 0; Y: -2; Blur: 2; Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘front bumper deco’ shadow. (Large preview)

    Let’s add a rubber element in the middle of the bumper deco. Select the bumper deco base, duplicate it and give this shape the name of rubber. Change the Fills to #303030 Solid Color, and change the Height to the half size, then align it to the middle with bumper deco base, using the Inspector panel.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper ‘rubber’ shape. (Large preview)

    Add the following effects to the rubber shape.

    First, a light Inner Shadow:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 30%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0

    Then, a dark Inner Shadow:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 100%
    • X: 0; Y: -4; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    After that, a dark Shadow:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 100%
    • X: 0; Y: -1; Blur: 2; Spread: 0

    And lastly, a light Shadow:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply all the styles to the front bumper ‘rubber’ element. (Large preview)

    Finally, select the bumper deco base and the rubber shapes and perform a Mask operation so that none of the rubber shadows go outside of the bumper deco base. Name the resulting group front bumper deco.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper ‘rubber’ shape is now complete. (Large preview)

    Now, using the same method as explained above, create the rear bumper deco element.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    When it’s ready, the rear bumper deco should look like this. (Large preview)

    Switch to the Vector tool (V) and draw a basic shape for the rear bumper guard. Add a Linear Gradient with the following properties:

    1. #EEEEEE
    2. #C9C9C9
    3. #939393
    4. #6C6C6C
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the rear bumper guard. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape, place it behind (right-click on the shape and choose Move Backward from the context menu), apply #2D2D2D Solid Color, push it a couple of pixels to the right and resize the height down a bit using the resize handles. Name this shape rubber buffer. Add an Inner Shadows effect with the Color set to #FFFFFF at 30% alpha. Set Y and Blur to 2, and X and Spread to 0.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘rubber buffer’. (Large preview)

    Select again the shape on top, duplicate it one more time, and use the key to move it a few pixels to the left. Modify the Linear Gradient (delete the two middle points, change the colors of the top and bottom points to #8E8E8E and #DEDEDE then move the top point down a bit). Finally, apply a Gaussian Blur effect with the Amount of 0.6.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the rear bumper guard. (Large preview)

    Select this shape and the shape below this one and perform a Mask operation. Name the resulting group bumper guard base, then select the resulting group and the rubber buffer shape and group them into a group rear bumper guard. Place this group just below the bodywork group in the Layers panel list.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rear bumper guard — now finished. (Large preview)

    Using the Rectangle tool, create two rectangles like on the image below (use Radius in the Inspector panel to control the roundness of the points). Select both shapes and to create one object, from the top toolbar in Sketch perform a Union operation. Move this new object inside the rear bumper guard group, directly into the bumper guard base group on top. Change Color to #000000, turn off Borders and add Gaussian Blur with the Amount of 1.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the shadow from the bumper inside the bumper guard. (Large preview)

    Here’s a preview of what we’ve done so far.

    The Porsche 911 illustration — getting there bit by bit...
    The Porsche 911 — getting there bit by bit… (Large preview)

    10. Windshields

    Side Windows

    Remember those side window 1 and side window 2 copies that we have created at the beginning of the tutorial, in Part 1?

    Well it’s time to use them! Locate these copies in the Layers panel list and un-hide them. Make sure that Fills is turned off and add 5px Width Borders with a #72BD20 color, positioned Inside.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Time to un-hide the ‘side window 1’ and ‘side window 2’ copies! (Large preview)

    At the beginning, we will create the window frames using these shapes.

    So first, we will need to convert a shape border to a shape itself. We need to apply Inner Shadows to the window frames because there’s no option to apply Inner Shadows to Borders.

    To outline the borders, select both shapes and go to LayerConvert to Outlines (or press Alt + Cmd + O on the keyboard).

    Note: Converting the shapes to outlines has turned each shape into two separate combined shape layers. That’s because an outline stroke is a combined path that exists of two shapes:

    • one that determines the outer boundaries, and
    • the other determines the inner boundaries, creating the appearance of a stroke.
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The outline borders. (Large preview)

    Select and copy (Cmd + C) the inner shapes, then deselect the shapes by pressing Esc on the keyboard and finally paste (Cmd + V) them (please note that Sketch will place the copies on top), because we will use these shapes as windshields. Give them the names of side windshield 1 and side windshield 2 and hide them for now.

    Let’s continue with the window frames. Draw two shapes using the Vector tool (V), select those newly created shapes and the side window 1 shape and perform a Union operation to create one shape. Change Fills to #DCDCDC and add Inner Shadows with the Color set to #000000 with 50% Alpha and Blur set to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘side window 1’. (Large preview)

    Apply the same styles — Fills and Inner Shadows — to the side window 2.

    Un-hide the side windshields and place them below the bodywork group in the Layers panel list.

    Tip: Since the windshields are basically transparent I suggest you to temporary add some background color to the artboard, so you can actually see what we are going to do. To do that, select the artboard and then turn on ‘Background color’ in the Inspector panel then set ‘Color’ to something like #434343.

    Now back to the side windshields: select the first one (the one on the left), turn off Borders and set Fills to Linear Gradient:

    1. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 0%
    2. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 22%
    3. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 50%
    4. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 27%
    5. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 30%
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘side windshield 1’. (Large preview)

    Do the same for the other windshield.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘side windshield 2’. (Large preview)

    Tip: You can use the Sketch’s feature Copy Style from the first windshield (right-click and choose ‘Copy Style’) then paste the style to the second windshield (right-click then choose ‘Paste Style’). After that, you may only need to slightly move the points to adjust the gradient to match with previous one, since the shapes are not the same height.

    Front Windshield

    Switch to the Vector tool and draw a shape for the front windshield. Apply a Linear Gradient with the following parameters:

    1. Color: #F3F2F0, Alpha: 40%
    2. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 50%
    3. Color: #F3F2F0, Alpha: 20%
    4. Color: #F3F2F0, Alpha: 10%

    Then add Inner Shadows with the Color set to #000000 with 10% Alpha. Set Y position to 2 and Blur to 8. Name it front windshield.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘front windshield’ element. (Large preview)

    Rear Windshield

    Draw a rear windshield with the Vector tool, and apply the same style (Linear Gradient and Inner Shadows) like for the front windshield.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘rear windshield’ element. (Large preview)

    Name this shape rear windshield, then select all the windshield shapes, group them into a windshields group and make sure that this group is below the bodywork group in the Layers panel list.

    Note: You can now turn off the Artboard’s background color in the Inspector panel.

    11. Headlight

    For the headlight, switch to the Vector tool and draw the shape that will be headlight glass. Use Solid Color #E4E4E4, turn off Borders and add Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 10%
    • X: 5; Y: -2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Let’s create the headlight glass. (Large preview)

    Next, draw a black (#000000) shape over the headlight glass. Duplicate this shape (Cmd + D), push it 1px the the left and apply a Linear Gradient with the following parameters, from top to bottom:

    1. #EEEEEE
    2. #F5F5F5
    3. #828282
    4. #484848
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the next part of the headlight. (Large preview)

    Select all the shapes and group them (Cmd + G) into s headlight group. Then we need to rotate it a bit (by 25 degrees) and place it above the bodywork group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘headlight’ group is now complete. (Large preview)

    12. Rear Engine Grille

    In this step we will create a grille over the rear engine lid. Once again, pick up the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape. Change Fills to #000000 and add Inner Shadows — for the Color use #FFFFFF with 80% Alpha, and set X position to -2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the grille element. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape, move it to the left and down a bit, zoom in close enough, switch to vector editing mode and move the points so they touch the edge of the rear engine lid. Use the image below as a reference.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start building the engine grille using the grille element. (Large preview)

    Repeat this eight more times to form a grille over the engine lid. Then draw a line using the Line tool (L). For the Color use #CCCCCC, set Width to 1px and choose Round cap for the Border ends. Apply black (#000000) Shadows effect with 100% Alpha and Blur of 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The engine grille is now complete. (Large preview)

    Select all of the grille layers, and place them inside the group rear engine grille.

    13. Side Mirror

    Let’s move on to the other details on the car. The side mirrors!

    Using the Vector tool, create a shape which will be the base for the side mirror, turn off Borders and use Linear Gradient for the Fills:

    1. #E5E5E5
    2. #D5D5D5
    3. #878787
    4. #6A6463

    Then add Inner Shadows:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 2; Y: -2; Blur: 6; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Shaping the ‘side mirror base’ shape. (Large preview)

    Name this shape side mirror base.

    Draw another shape, which will be mirror cover, once again turn off Borders and change Fills to Linear Gradient:

    1. #CCCACB
    2. #FEFEFE
    3. #A1A5A4
    4. #4A413F
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘mirror cover base’. (Large preview)

    Give this shape the name of mirror cover base. Duplicate the shape and push it 4px to the left using the key on the keyboard. Change Color to #C4C4C4 and add two Inner Shadows.

    For the first Inner Shadow use:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 60%
    • X: 5; Y: 0; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    For the second Inner Shadow use following properties:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: -4; Y: 5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0

    Then select both shapes and perform a Mask operation, so the top shape does not extend past the mirror cover (the bottom shape). Name the resulting group mirror cover.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘mirror cover’ group. (Large preview)

    Select side mirror base and add one more Inner Shadows effect, to add shadow from the mirror cover. For the Color use #000000 with 50% Alpha, set X position to -1 and Blur to 1.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add a shadow from the mirror cover. (Large preview)

    We will finish this step by creating a shadow from the side mirror.

    Grab the Vector tool and draw a shape like on the image below. Place it below the side mirror base, push it a bit up so it is really behind it, and add a Linear Gradient for the Fills. For the top stop use #000000 with 40% Alpha and for the bottom stop also use #000000 but with 0% Alpha. Don’t forget to turn off Borders.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create a shadow from the side mirror. (Large preview)

    Name this shape side mirror shadow, then select all shapes created in this step and group them into a side mirror group.

    14. Exhaust Pipe

    It’s time to create the exhaust pipe. First, find in the Layers panel list the floor layer, remember — the one that we’ve created at the beginning of the tutorial in Step 2 — and un-hide it. Switch to the Rectangle tool (R) and draw a rectangle with the Radius set to 2. This rectangle shape will represent the exhaust pipe.

    Turn off Borders and set Fills to a Linear Gradient:

    1. #E2E2E2
    2. #E3E3E3
    3. #A0A0A0
    4. #2C2C2C
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw the exhaust pipe shape. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the rectangle, make it smaller in width, switch to the vector editing mode, select the points on the right side and set their Radius to 0, then modify the existing Linear Gradient to:

    1. #1E1E1E
    2. #3A3A3A
    3. #2A2A2A
    4. #111111
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw another part of the exhaust pipe. (Large preview)

    Select both rectangles, group them into an exhaust pipe group and place the group just above the rear bumper guard in the Layers panel list.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The exhaust pipe, now finished. (Large preview)

    15. Car Interior

    Select side window 1 and side window 2, duplicate them (Cmd + D), change Color to #000000 and turn off the Inner Shadows.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the car interior. (Large preview)

    Place these duplicates below the rear bumper guard in the Layers panel list, and then, using the arrow keys on the keyboard, shift them 5px down and 2px to the right.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Move behind. (Large preview)

    Draw a shape, which will represent the visible part of the car’s dashboard, turn off Borders and set the Fills to #2A2A2A.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw the visible part of the dashboard. (Large preview)

    Next, let’s create the steering wheel.

    Create a rectangle using the Rounded Rectangle tool (U), turn off Borders and change Fills to horizontal Linear Gradient with the following parameters:

    1. #000000
    2. #676767
    3. #292929
    4. #090909

    Then we need to rotate the rectangle -24 degrees and move it to the left a bit.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the steering wheel. (Large preview)

    Now let’s continue with other details of the car interior. Select the Vector tool and create a shape like on the image below. Turn off Borders, set Color to #000000, and apply Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 30%
    • X: -12; Y: -6; Blur: 8; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue adding elements to the car interior. (Large preview)

    Use the Oval tool (O) to draw a small ellipse. For the Color use #717171 and turn the Borders off.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add another element to the car interior. (Large preview)

    Now let’s create the visible part of the driver’s seat. Create a shape with the Vector tool. Turn off Borders and use a Linear Gradient; for the top color stop use color #6D6D6D and for the bottom #171717. And add an Inner Shadows effect — Color is #000000 with 50% Alpha, X position is 2 and Blur is 7.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw the driver’s seat. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape, push it 5px to the right and 1px up by using the arrow keys. Then modify the existing Linear Gradient — change the bottom color stop to #000000. And modify the Inner Shadows effect — change the Color to #FFFFFF with 10% Alpha; set X and Y positions to 5, and Blur also to 5.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on refining the seat’s details. (Large preview)

    Now let’s add stitches to the seat.

    Duplicate this shape, push it 5px to the right and 3px down. Then, turn off Fills and Inner Shadows, bring back Borders and for the Color choose Linear Gradient — for the top color stop use #696969 and for the bottom #000000. Add Shadow effect — for the Color use #000000 with 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2. Then select this shape and the layer below it and perform a Mask operation, so the stitches do not go outside the seat’s boundaries.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add stitches to the driver’s seat. (Large preview)

    Almost ready with the car interior!

    Next, select all layers and groups that we’ve created in this step and that are above the car body and position them just above side window 1 copy and side window 2 copy in the Layers panel list. Add to the selection those two shapes as well (side window 1 copy and side window 2 copy) and create a group (Cmd + G) named interior.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The car interior is now complete. (Large preview)

    Let’s take a look at the big picture again.

    Final image 2/3: Let’s take a look at our Porsche 911 car — we’re more than half-way there!
    Final image 2/3: Let’s take a look at our Porsche 911 car — we’re more than half-way there! (Large preview)

    It’s not bad, right?

    But, before we conclude this part of the tutorial, let’s add one more small detail to the car body, so pick up the Line tool (L) and draw a line. For the Color use #E5E5E5, set Width to 2px and choose Round cap for the Border ends. Then apply Shadows — set Color to #000000 at 80% Alpha, Y position to 2 and Blur to 3. Finally, place this line inside the bodywork group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The car’s body is now finished — one more final detail added. (Large preview)

    Conclusion

    The body of the car is now ready, as well as the windows, bumpers, headlights and taillights, and the interior — dashboard, the steering wheel, and the seat. In the next (and final) part of the tutorial, we’ll create the wheels (rims and tires), and we’ll add all the final touches, including the racing decals on the car’s body.

    Smashing Editorial
    (mb, ra, yk, il)

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    How To Create A Porsche 911 With Sketch (Part 2) — Smashing Magazine

    07/31/2020

    About The Author

    Visual and UI/UX Designer, the author of dozens Adobe Photoshop and Sketch tutorials. Espresso addict. Watch enthusiast.
    More about
    Nikola
    Lazarević

    In Part 1 of this tutorial, Nikola Lazarević explained how you can create and tweak the body of a car in Sketch including the front signal lights and the tail lights. In this part, he continues with the design of the car windows, bumpers, headlights, the interior, and a few other elements.

    Are you ready to push Sketch to its limits once again? As noted in the previous part, this tutorial is geared more towards experienced illustrators, but if you’re new to Sketch then you should also be able to profit from it since all of the steps are explained in great detail.

    After finishing off the tail lights, let’s continue with the design of the car windows.

    7. Rubber Seals Around The Windows

    In this step, we will add rubber seals around the windows. Start first with the side window. Switch to the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape around the the side window, like on the image below.

    Note: Before you continue, remember that we’re still drawing inside the bodywork group!

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw a rubber seal shape around the side window. (Large preview)

    Turn off Borders and set Fills to #000000, and add a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 90%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 3; Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rubber seal around the side window is now complete. (Large preview)

    Next, let’s add a rubber seal around the front windshield. Draw a shape around the front window, turn off Borders, set Color to #000000 and apply Shadows:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 90%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 3; Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front windshield’s rubber seal. (Large preview)

    Now, let’s add a trim on top of the rubber seal. To do that, duplicate the seal shape, turn off Fills and Shadows, turn on Borders, set Color to #E0E0E0, border position to Inside and Width to 1.5px. Double-click on the shape to enter vector editing mode and then select and move the points until you have something like on the image below. Be patient, it may require some time!

    Note: While usually I’d suggest avoiding half-pixels in your vector illustrations as much as possible, in some cases these might actually work well. After quite some trial and error while working on the trim on top of the windshield’s rubber seal, I’ve discovered that 1.5px gives the best visual results.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the trim. (Large preview)

    Tip: Change point types as needed while working on this shape.

    At the end of this step, we need also to add a seal around the rear windshield. Draw a shape around it, turn off Border, set Fills to #000000 and apply Shadows with the same parameters like we did for the previous seals.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rear windshield’s rubber seal. (Large preview)

    8. Door Handle

    Pick up the Oval tool (O) and draw an ellipse. Set Border color to #949494, position to Center with a Width of 1px. For the Fills use a Linear Gradient:

    1. #787878
    2. #C9C9C9
    3. #A5A5A5

    And add Inner Shadows:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw an ellipse for the door handle. (Large preview)

    Create a rectangle on the left and on the right side of the ellipse by using the Rectangle tool (R). Make the outer corners rounded by using the Radius property in the Inspector panel. Turn off Borders and set Fills to #333333.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the rectangles on the left and on the right side of the door ellipse. (Large preview)

    We will now use Inner Shadows and Shadows to make it look slightly raised.

    Select left side rectangle and add a light Inner Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 20%
    • X: 2; Y: -2; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    Then, apply a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply the effects to the left side rectangle. (Large preview)

    Next, select right side rectangle and apply Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 20%
    • X:2; Y: -2; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    Apply a Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 0; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply the effects to the right side rectangle. Still not there but we’re getting closer! (Large preview)

    Let’s move on to handle. We will build our handle out of three shapes.

    First, create two rectangles by using the Rectangle tool (R) and make the sides rounded with a help of the Radius property set from the Inspector panel.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the handle details. (Large preview)

    Then, use the Vector tool (V) to draw a shape between the rectangles.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    With the Vector tool, draw a shape between these two rectangles. (Large preview)

    Now select the rectangles and the shape we have just created and perform a Union operation (from the top Sketch toolbar) to create one object. Name this object handleshape. Change the Color to #E3E3E3 and add an Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: -2; Blur: 5; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the object and apply the styles. (Large preview)

    Let’s add a subtle shadow to the handle. Zoom in and draw a shape like on the image below. Don’t worry if the bottom part goes out of handle area, we will fix this later with a masking operation. Turn off Borders and set Fills to #3D3D3D.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add a shadow to the door handle. (Large preview)

    Let’s fit the shadow inside the handle. Select the handle and the shadow shape, and click on Mask in the top toolbar. The result of this masking operation will automatically be placed in a new group in the Layers panel list. Change the name of this group to handle.

    Tip: *Don’t forget to check if Sketch turned off Inner Shadows for the masking layer. If that’s the case, just turn them back on.*

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘handle’ group is complete. (Large preview)

    Now, let’s add a key lock to the door handle.

    Draw a small circle. Add a Center Border with a Width of 1px and the Color set to #000000. Change Fills to Linear Gradient, and adjust the gradient with the following parameters:

    1. #888888
    2. #DFDFDF
    3. #CACACA

    Apply a Shadow effect with the Color set to #000000 at 90% alpha, Blur to 3, the X and Y positions and Spread set to 0.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create a key lock. (Large preview)

    Create a keyhole by drawing a tiny black rectangle without Borders in the middle of the circle. Group both shapes (circle and rectangle) into a key-lock group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the keyhole. (Large preview)

    The only thing left to do is to create the handle’s shadow which should be placed inside the ellipse (see the next screenshot). Find the handleshape object in the Layers panel list, click on the caret in front of the layer name to reveal its content (the shapes), select the bridge between the rectangles and press Cmd + C to copy this shape.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Select the bridge between the rectangles then copy it. (Large preview)

    Select the ellipse that is below the handle, paste (Cmd + V) over the shape that we’ve just copied, set the Color to #505050, push it down 2px and apply a Gaussian Blur with an Amount of 2. Then select this shape along with the ellipse and group them together (Cmd + G).

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Paste, move, apply the styles, then group. (Large preview)

    Inside this group, select the ellipse, right-click on it and choose Mask from the menu, to make sure that the shadow will stay inside the ellipse.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The handle shadow is now complete. (Large preview)

    Select all the elements that we created in this step and place them into a group named door handle.

    9. Bumpers

    Let’s create the front bumper first. Switch to the Vector tool (V) and draw the shape. Change the Fills Opacity to 0%, make sure that Borders are turned off and apply light and dark Inner Shadows effect.

    First add a light Inner Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0

    Then, add a dark Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: -2; Y: -5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper. (Large preview)

    Do the same for the rear bumper, but instead use these parameters for the dark Inner Shadow effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 3; Y: -5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rear bumper. (Large preview)

    Name these shapes front bumper and rear bumper.

    Let’s move on to the next element on the case. Now we will create the decoration on the front bumper. Grab the Rounded Rectangle tool (U) and draw a rounded rectangle (174px by 14px). Make sure it is outside of the bodywork group and give it the name bumper deco base.

    Turn off Borders and then click on Fills, choose Linear Gradient, and add a gradient. Use #E4E4E4 with 100% alpha for the first color stop and #858585 with alpha 100% for the last color stop. Now, add another point with a click on the gradient axis in the color dialog, and move it to the exact middle by pressing 5 on the keyboard. Give it 100% alpha, and make sure its color is #E4E4E4. Add another one to the right, and also move it to the center. Change the color of this stop to #858585 with 100% alpha.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper deco element. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the shape (Cmd + D), change the name to front bumper deco shadow and using the Layers panel list, drag it inside the bodywork group just above the front bumper shape, and add two Shadows effects.

    Add the first Shadows effect with the following properties:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 80%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 2

    Then, add the second Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 80%
    • X: 0; Y: -2; Blur: 2; Spread: 1
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘front bumper deco’ shadow. (Large preview)

    Let’s add a rubber element in the middle of the bumper deco. Select the bumper deco base, duplicate it and give this shape the name of rubber. Change the Fills to #303030 Solid Color, and change the Height to the half size, then align it to the middle with bumper deco base, using the Inspector panel.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper ‘rubber’ shape. (Large preview)

    Add the following effects to the rubber shape.

    First, a light Inner Shadow:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 30%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0

    Then, a dark Inner Shadow:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 100%
    • X: 0; Y: -4; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    After that, a dark Shadow:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 100%
    • X: 0; Y: -1; Blur: 2; Spread: 0

    And lastly, a light Shadow:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 0; Y: 2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Apply all the styles to the front bumper ‘rubber’ element. (Large preview)

    Finally, select the bumper deco base and the rubber shapes and perform a Mask operation so that none of the rubber shadows go outside of the bumper deco base. Name the resulting group front bumper deco.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The front bumper ‘rubber’ shape is now complete. (Large preview)

    Now, using the same method as explained above, create the rear bumper deco element.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    When it’s ready, the rear bumper deco should look like this. (Large preview)

    Switch to the Vector tool (V) and draw a basic shape for the rear bumper guard. Add a Linear Gradient with the following properties:

    1. #EEEEEE
    2. #C9C9C9
    3. #939393
    4. #6C6C6C
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the rear bumper guard. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape, place it behind (right-click on the shape and choose Move Backward from the context menu), apply #2D2D2D Solid Color, push it a couple of pixels to the right and resize the height down a bit using the resize handles. Name this shape rubber buffer. Add an Inner Shadows effect with the Color set to #FFFFFF at 30% alpha. Set Y and Blur to 2, and X and Spread to 0.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘rubber buffer’. (Large preview)

    Select again the shape on top, duplicate it one more time, and use the key to move it a few pixels to the left. Modify the Linear Gradient (delete the two middle points, change the colors of the top and bottom points to #8E8E8E and #DEDEDE then move the top point down a bit). Finally, apply a Gaussian Blur effect with the Amount of 0.6.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on the rear bumper guard. (Large preview)

    Select this shape and the shape below this one and perform a Mask operation. Name the resulting group bumper guard base, then select the resulting group and the rubber buffer shape and group them into a group rear bumper guard. Place this group just below the bodywork group in the Layers panel list.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The rear bumper guard — now finished. (Large preview)

    Using the Rectangle tool, create two rectangles like on the image below (use Radius in the Inspector panel to control the roundness of the points). Select both shapes and to create one object, from the top toolbar in Sketch perform a Union operation. Move this new object inside the rear bumper guard group, directly into the bumper guard base group on top. Change Color to #000000, turn off Borders and add Gaussian Blur with the Amount of 1.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the shadow from the bumper inside the bumper guard. (Large preview)

    Here’s a preview of what we’ve done so far.

    The Porsche 911 illustration — getting there bit by bit...
    The Porsche 911 — getting there bit by bit… (Large preview)

    10. Windshields

    Side Windows

    Remember those side window 1 and side window 2 copies that we have created at the beginning of the tutorial, in Part 1?

    Well it’s time to use them! Locate these copies in the Layers panel list and un-hide them. Make sure that Fills is turned off and add 5px Width Borders with a #72BD20 color, positioned Inside.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Time to un-hide the ‘side window 1’ and ‘side window 2’ copies! (Large preview)

    At the beginning, we will create the window frames using these shapes.

    So first, we will need to convert a shape border to a shape itself. We need to apply Inner Shadows to the window frames because there’s no option to apply Inner Shadows to Borders.

    To outline the borders, select both shapes and go to LayerConvert to Outlines (or press Alt + Cmd + O on the keyboard).

    Note: Converting the shapes to outlines has turned each shape into two separate combined shape layers. That’s because an outline stroke is a combined path that exists of two shapes:

    • one that determines the outer boundaries, and
    • the other determines the inner boundaries, creating the appearance of a stroke.
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The outline borders. (Large preview)

    Select and copy (Cmd + C) the inner shapes, then deselect the shapes by pressing Esc on the keyboard and finally paste (Cmd + V) them (please note that Sketch will place the copies on top), because we will use these shapes as windshields. Give them the names of side windshield 1 and side windshield 2 and hide them for now.

    Let’s continue with the window frames. Draw two shapes using the Vector tool (V), select those newly created shapes and the side window 1 shape and perform a Union operation to create one shape. Change Fills to #DCDCDC and add Inner Shadows with the Color set to #000000 with 50% Alpha and Blur set to 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘side window 1’. (Large preview)

    Apply the same styles — Fills and Inner Shadows — to the side window 2.

    Un-hide the side windshields and place them below the bodywork group in the Layers panel list.

    Tip: Since the windshields are basically transparent I suggest you to temporary add some background color to the artboard, so you can actually see what we are going to do. To do that, select the artboard and then turn on ‘Background color’ in the Inspector panel then set ‘Color’ to something like #434343.

    Now back to the side windshields: select the first one (the one on the left), turn off Borders and set Fills to Linear Gradient:

    1. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 0%
    2. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 22%
    3. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 50%
    4. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 27%
    5. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 30%
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘side windshield 1’. (Large preview)

    Do the same for the other windshield.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘side windshield 2’. (Large preview)

    Tip: You can use the Sketch’s feature Copy Style from the first windshield (right-click and choose ‘Copy Style’) then paste the style to the second windshield (right-click then choose ‘Paste Style’). After that, you may only need to slightly move the points to adjust the gradient to match with previous one, since the shapes are not the same height.

    Front Windshield

    Switch to the Vector tool and draw a shape for the front windshield. Apply a Linear Gradient with the following parameters:

    1. Color: #F3F2F0, Alpha: 40%
    2. Color: #FFFFFF, Alpha: 50%
    3. Color: #F3F2F0, Alpha: 20%
    4. Color: #F3F2F0, Alpha: 10%

    Then add Inner Shadows with the Color set to #000000 with 10% Alpha. Set Y position to 2 and Blur to 8. Name it front windshield.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘front windshield’ element. (Large preview)

    Rear Windshield

    Draw a rear windshield with the Vector tool, and apply the same style (Linear Gradient and Inner Shadows) like for the front windshield.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘rear windshield’ element. (Large preview)

    Name this shape rear windshield, then select all the windshield shapes, group them into a windshields group and make sure that this group is below the bodywork group in the Layers panel list.

    Note: You can now turn off the Artboard’s background color in the Inspector panel.

    11. Headlight

    For the headlight, switch to the Vector tool and draw the shape that will be headlight glass. Use Solid Color #E4E4E4, turn off Borders and add Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 10%
    • X: 5; Y: -2; Blur: 2; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Let’s create the headlight glass. (Large preview)

    Next, draw a black (#000000) shape over the headlight glass. Duplicate this shape (Cmd + D), push it 1px the the left and apply a Linear Gradient with the following parameters, from top to bottom:

    1. #EEEEEE
    2. #F5F5F5
    3. #828282
    4. #484848
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the next part of the headlight. (Large preview)

    Select all the shapes and group them (Cmd + G) into s headlight group. Then we need to rotate it a bit (by 25 degrees) and place it above the bodywork group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘headlight’ group is now complete. (Large preview)

    12. Rear Engine Grille

    In this step we will create a grille over the rear engine lid. Once again, pick up the Vector tool (V) and draw a shape. Change Fills to #000000 and add Inner Shadows — for the Color use #FFFFFF with 80% Alpha, and set X position to -2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the grille element. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape, move it to the left and down a bit, zoom in close enough, switch to vector editing mode and move the points so they touch the edge of the rear engine lid. Use the image below as a reference.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start building the engine grille using the grille element. (Large preview)

    Repeat this eight more times to form a grille over the engine lid. Then draw a line using the Line tool (L). For the Color use #CCCCCC, set Width to 1px and choose Round cap for the Border ends. Apply black (#000000) Shadows effect with 100% Alpha and Blur of 2.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The engine grille is now complete. (Large preview)

    Select all of the grille layers, and place them inside the group rear engine grille.

    13. Side Mirror

    Let’s move on to the other details on the car. The side mirrors!

    Using the Vector tool, create a shape which will be the base for the side mirror, turn off Borders and use Linear Gradient for the Fills:

    1. #E5E5E5
    2. #D5D5D5
    3. #878787
    4. #6A6463

    Then add Inner Shadows:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: 2; Y: -2; Blur: 6; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Shaping the ‘side mirror base’ shape. (Large preview)

    Name this shape side mirror base.

    Draw another shape, which will be mirror cover, once again turn off Borders and change Fills to Linear Gradient:

    1. #CCCACB
    2. #FEFEFE
    3. #A1A5A4
    4. #4A413F
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘mirror cover base’. (Large preview)

    Give this shape the name of mirror cover base. Duplicate the shape and push it 4px to the left using the key on the keyboard. Change Color to #C4C4C4 and add two Inner Shadows.

    For the first Inner Shadow use:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 60%
    • X: 5; Y: 0; Blur: 1; Spread: 0

    For the second Inner Shadow use following properties:

    • Color: #000000
    • Alpha: 50%
    • X: -4; Y: 5; Blur: 6; Spread: 0

    Then select both shapes and perform a Mask operation, so the top shape does not extend past the mirror cover (the bottom shape). Name the resulting group mirror cover.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The ‘mirror cover’ group. (Large preview)

    Select side mirror base and add one more Inner Shadows effect, to add shadow from the mirror cover. For the Color use #000000 with 50% Alpha, set X position to -1 and Blur to 1.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add a shadow from the mirror cover. (Large preview)

    We will finish this step by creating a shadow from the side mirror.

    Grab the Vector tool and draw a shape like on the image below. Place it below the side mirror base, push it a bit up so it is really behind it, and add a Linear Gradient for the Fills. For the top stop use #000000 with 40% Alpha and for the bottom stop also use #000000 but with 0% Alpha. Don’t forget to turn off Borders.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create a shadow from the side mirror. (Large preview)

    Name this shape side mirror shadow, then select all shapes created in this step and group them into a side mirror group.

    14. Exhaust Pipe

    It’s time to create the exhaust pipe. First, find in the Layers panel list the floor layer, remember — the one that we’ve created at the beginning of the tutorial in Step 2 — and un-hide it. Switch to the Rectangle tool (R) and draw a rectangle with the Radius set to 2. This rectangle shape will represent the exhaust pipe.

    Turn off Borders and set Fills to a Linear Gradient:

    1. #E2E2E2
    2. #E3E3E3
    3. #A0A0A0
    4. #2C2C2C
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw the exhaust pipe shape. (Large preview)

    Duplicate the rectangle, make it smaller in width, switch to the vector editing mode, select the points on the right side and set their Radius to 0, then modify the existing Linear Gradient to:

    1. #1E1E1E
    2. #3A3A3A
    3. #2A2A2A
    4. #111111
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw another part of the exhaust pipe. (Large preview)

    Select both rectangles, group them into an exhaust pipe group and place the group just above the rear bumper guard in the Layers panel list.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The exhaust pipe, now finished. (Large preview)

    15. Car Interior

    Select side window 1 and side window 2, duplicate them (Cmd + D), change Color to #000000 and turn off the Inner Shadows.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Start working on the car interior. (Large preview)

    Place these duplicates below the rear bumper guard in the Layers panel list, and then, using the arrow keys on the keyboard, shift them 5px down and 2px to the right.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Move behind. (Large preview)

    Draw a shape, which will represent the visible part of the car’s dashboard, turn off Borders and set the Fills to #2A2A2A.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw the visible part of the dashboard. (Large preview)

    Next, let’s create the steering wheel.

    Create a rectangle using the Rounded Rectangle tool (U), turn off Borders and change Fills to horizontal Linear Gradient with the following parameters:

    1. #000000
    2. #676767
    3. #292929
    4. #090909

    Then we need to rotate the rectangle -24 degrees and move it to the left a bit.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Create the steering wheel. (Large preview)

    Now let’s continue with other details of the car interior. Select the Vector tool and create a shape like on the image below. Turn off Borders, set Color to #000000, and apply Inner Shadows effect:

    • Color: #FFFFFF
    • Alpha: 30%
    • X: -12; Y: -6; Blur: 8; Spread: 0
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue adding elements to the car interior. (Large preview)

    Use the Oval tool (O) to draw a small ellipse. For the Color use #717171 and turn the Borders off.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add another element to the car interior. (Large preview)

    Now let’s create the visible part of the driver’s seat. Create a shape with the Vector tool. Turn off Borders and use a Linear Gradient; for the top color stop use color #6D6D6D and for the bottom #171717. And add an Inner Shadows effect — Color is #000000 with 50% Alpha, X position is 2 and Blur is 7.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Draw the driver’s seat. (Large preview)

    Duplicate this shape, push it 5px to the right and 1px up by using the arrow keys. Then modify the existing Linear Gradient — change the bottom color stop to #000000. And modify the Inner Shadows effect — change the Color to #FFFFFF with 10% Alpha; set X and Y positions to 5, and Blur also to 5.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Continue working on refining the seat’s details. (Large preview)

    Now let’s add stitches to the seat.

    Duplicate this shape, push it 5px to the right and 3px down. Then, turn off Fills and Inner Shadows, bring back Borders and for the Color choose Linear Gradient — for the top color stop use #696969 and for the bottom #000000. Add Shadow effect — for the Color use #000000 with 50% Alpha and set Blur to 2. Then select this shape and the layer below it and perform a Mask operation, so the stitches do not go outside the seat’s boundaries.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Add stitches to the driver’s seat. (Large preview)

    Almost ready with the car interior!

    Next, select all layers and groups that we’ve created in this step and that are above the car body and position them just above side window 1 copy and side window 2 copy in the Layers panel list. Add to the selection those two shapes as well (side window 1 copy and side window 2 copy) and create a group (Cmd + G) named interior.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The car interior is now complete. (Large preview)

    Let’s take a look at the big picture again.

    Final image 2/3: Let’s take a look at our Porsche 911 car — we’re more than half-way there!
    Final image 2/3: Let’s take a look at our Porsche 911 car — we’re more than half-way there! (Large preview)

    It’s not bad, right?

    But, before we conclude this part of the tutorial, let’s add one more small detail to the car body, so pick up the Line tool (L) and draw a line. For the Color use #E5E5E5, set Width to 2px and choose Round cap for the Border ends. Then apply Shadows — set Color to #000000 at 80% Alpha, Y position to 2 and Blur to 3. Finally, place this line inside the bodywork group.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    The car’s body is now finished — one more final detail added. (Large preview)

    Conclusion

    The body of the car is now ready, as well as the windows, bumpers, headlights and taillights, and the interior — dashboard, the steering wheel, and the seat. In the next (and final) part of the tutorial, we’ll create the wheels (rims and tires), and we’ll add all the final touches, including the racing decals on the car’s body.

    Smashing Editorial
    (mb, ra, yk, il)

    Source link

    web design

    How To Create A Porsche 911 With Sketch (Part 1) — Smashing Magazine

    07/24/2020

    About The Author

    Visual and UI/UX Designer, the author of dozens Adobe Photoshop and Sketch tutorials. Espresso addict. Watch enthusiast.
    More about
    Nikola
    Lazarević

    This tutorial is for illustrators who also happen to be passionate car enthusiasts. If you follow along, you will learn how to draw from scratch in Sketch the legendary Porsche 911 — all in vectors. Together, we will be pushing Sketch to its limits and you will learn how to create an almost photo realistic car by using basic shapes, layer styles, and various Sketch features. No bitmap images will be used, which means that the final vector illustration could be scaled up to any size with no loss of detail.

    If you’re both a petrolhead (a.k.a. a big car enthusiast) with a special place in your heart for the legendary Porsche 911, and also a fan of the powerful Sketch app, then this tutorial is for you. Today, we’ll be pushing Sketch to its limits — step by step. You will learn how to create a very realistic and detailed vector illustration of a vintage Porsche 911 using basic shapes, layer styles and Sketch features (such as “Rotate Copies” and “Symbols”). You’ll learn how to master the Vector tool, apply multiple shadow effects and use gradients. I’ll also explain how you can rotate and duplicate objects with just a few special clicks. No bitmap images will be used, which means the final illustration could be scaled up to any size with no loss of detail.

    This tutorial is geared more towards experienced illustrators but if you’re new to Sketch you should be able to profit from it too as all of the steps are explained in great detail.

    Note: This is the first part of this tutorial in which we’ll focus on laying out the main “groundwork”, i.e. we’ll create and tweak the body of the car. In addition, we’ll also make the front signal lights and the tail lights. If you like, you can also skip to Part 2 and Part 3.

    The Porsche 911

    But first, a bit of background about the car that we’ll be making.

    Model 911 is a 2-doors sports car produced by Porsche from 1963 through 1989 when it was succeeded by a new model with the same name. The original 911 series is often cited as the most successful competition car ever, especially its variations optimized for racing. In September 1999, the original Porsche 911 won 5-th place in the prestigious “Car of the Century” award.

    The first 911 also had an almost unique concept for its time — rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive. (At a much later time, another company created a car with the same concept. It’s quite likely that you may have heard of this other car, too — this was the famous DeLorean DMC-12! The DeLorean became very popular in 1985 when Back to the Future was released in cinemas.)

    Now buckle up and let’s go — as we have a long, narrow, windy (but fun) road ahead of us. Start the engine (Sketch app), shift into first gear (create a new file), and release the clutch (start drawing on the blank canvas)!

    Note: I’ve written on the topic of using Sketch for vector illustration before. If you’re curious, do check my previous tutorial which is about designing a chronograph with Sketch: “Designing A Realistic Chronograph Watch In Sketch.”

    Let’s Draw A Car!

    To be able to better follow the steps in this tutorial, I will provide you with the original Sketch source file. This file will help you follow the process more easily but I encourage you to replicate the steps in a new file, starting with a blank canvas.

    The final illustration of the Porsche 911 that we’ll be creating in this tutorial.
    The final illustration of the Porsche 911 that we’ll be creating in this tutorial. (Large preview)

    1. Artboard Settings

    The first step is to create a new Sketch document. Name the document “Porsche911” and set up a new artboard with the same name, size: 1920px wide and 1080px high.

    2. Tracing The Car With the Vector tool

    For this step, we need an image of a Porsche 911 that will serve as a reference to outline the car in Sketch.

    Our reference image of a Porsche 911.
    Our reference image of a Porsche 911. (Large preview)

    Download, copy and paste the image into the artboard. Right-click on the reference image in the list of layers in the Layers panel and choose Lock Layer to lock the layer with the reference image so that it doesn’t move accidentally.

    Tip: The other way to lock a layer in Sketch is to hover the layer name while pressing Alt and clicking on the lock icon.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Lock the reference image layer. (Large preview)

    We will use the Vector tool to outline the car body. The result of this operation will be a vector shape. Each shape is made up of points and Bézier handles. Bézier handles are used to add curvature to a shape.

    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Vector points and Bézier handles. (Large preview)

    Know Your Points And Bézier Handles

    For every point you add with the Vector tool, there are four point types to choose from: straight, mirrored, disconnected, and asymmetric. The point type describes how Bézier handles should behave. You can cycle through these types by selecting a point and hitting 1, 2, 3, or 4 on your keyboard. You can find point type for the selected point in the Inspector panel.

    Point Types

    1. Straight
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Straight point type. (Large preview)

    The “straight” option will give you a straight corner. This type also allows you to add a corner Radius via the Inspector panel on the right.

    2. Mirrored
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Mirrored point type. (Large preview)

    “Mirrored” will add two Bézier handles that mirror each other so they are always parallel and the same length on both sides.

    3. Disconnected
    Screenshot of the steps described in the previous paragraph of the tutorial.
    Disconnected point type. (Large preview)

    This option will give you two Bézier handles that you can change individually. Perfect for sharp corners!

    4. Asymmetric